(Project of the Kajima Institute of International Peace)
Commemorating a Quarter Century of Dispatches of the JSDF's PKO Units: Challenges and Possibilities in the Post South Sudan PKO Activities
Lecturer, Nihon University
Associate, the Society of Security and Diplomatic Policy Studies
1.Looking ahead at the 25th anniversary
This year 2017 is a historical milestone for Japan's international peace cooperation. This is because the International Peace Cooperation Law, introduced in June 1992 under the Miyazawa Cabinet, celebrated its 25th anniversary. The "International Peace Cooperation Law 25th Anniversary Special Page" was opened on the official website of the Secretariat of the International Peace Cooperation Headquarters, Cabinet Office, and relevant announcements were placed in many newspapers. This demonstrates the importance of the International Peace Cooperation Law.
However, we need to examine problems with operations based on the International Peace Cooperation Law. The Self Defense Forces (SDF) engineering units that were dispatched to South Sudan (The Republic of South Sudan after its independence) in January 2012 engaged in infrastructure development and defense exchanges, and concluded their activities this year. Japan now only dispatches staff officers and liaison/coordination personnel to the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)1 .
Dispatching units to UNMISS was the first case after a partial but critical amendment to the International Peace Cooperation Law in 2015. For every unit dispatch requested by the United Nations to Japan in future, this experience will inevitably be referred to. In this sense, it is necessary to consider what problems were faced over the dispatch to the South Sudan of PKO units. Also, what initiatives can be considered to be undertaken when looking at post-South Sudan? Such a review will provide a platform for a constructive and realistic debate on future PKO activities.
2.Domestic discussions over divided forces: "South-North" and "South-South"
The International Peace Cooperation Law is considered as a starting point in discussions on the dispatch of South Sudan PKO. What were most discussed about the law were ceasefire agreements and the use of weapons in the Five Principles for Participation.
When the SDF dispatch was considered, the framework of discussion for the Sudanese civil war was clearly a "South-North" fight. The civil war framework, however, changed immediately to a "South-South" fight after the death of John Garang de Mabior (the SPLA/SPLM: Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement)2 .
Whether the framework of discussion in Japan is the "South-North" or the "South-South", it is certain that there was an intense debate in the Diet on whether or not a ceasefire agreement was established in Sudan. However, since the time of the North-South conflict, the southern forces have constantly faced repeated division and dissolution. Even the SPLA/SPLM is not a monolithic organization. Contrary to the intense debate over the ceasefire agreement, discussions on how to deal with such forces, in other words quasi-state organizations that were not covered by an established framework were not made sufficiently.
During activities of the UNTAC (United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia) in May 1993, a Japanese Civilian Police (CIVPOL) officer was killed. The criminal was not discovered, and activities of divided forces that are not covered by the framework of the ceasefire agreement still continue in the same way. Moreover, in discussions before the event, considerable attention was only paid to whether or not the ceasefire agreement was established and maintained, but discussion on countermeasures against divided forces was extremely limited. Although the dispatch destination and the dispatch scale are different, Japan still repeats the same discussion as a quarter century ago.
3.Concerns about assuming a new mission
Japan has not, however, ignored to take measures against forces that were not included in existing frameworks of the ceasefire agreement. When a Japanese CIVPOL officer was attacked in Cambodia, a dispatch of election observers was imminent in Japan. While ensuring the security of Japan's election observers was drawing great attention, the SDF was not permitted to have a guard mission due to the law existing at the time. Therefore, the government of Japan determined to make the SDF patrols over the election observers under the pretence of "supply and information gathering" activities as if the SDF guarded Japan's observers3 .
Given these historical experiences, giving new tasks such as "kaketsuke-keigo" (coming to the aid of geographically distant unit or personnel under attack)4 will be responding to current problems. When the International Peace Cooperation Law was introduced, the use of weapons was limited to a minimum necessary for self-defense. Relaxation of this rule was realized in the 2001 amendment to the law. Freeze on the PKF (Peacekeeping Forces) ended, and use of weapons was also admitted to protect those who entered under the PKF's control. However, the JSDF has never used weapons in any PKO mission.
There is now a question to address. Can the SDF, that has no experience of using weapons, adapt to new tasks that require more aggressive action? Firstly, it is said that a considerable level of practice is indispensable for engaging in any new tasks. Since the Ground Self Defense Force (GSDF) started a practical training in September 20165 , the period of training before an actual assignment is less than half a year. Not only is the SDF inexperienced, but its training time is very short.
Discussion concentrates too much on the constitutionality of new tasks, and self-defense and protection of personnel from other countries still present difficulties.
4.Expanding missions: technological innovation and human resource education
In this way, domestic discussions over divided forces and use of weapons were held before the South Sudan PKO mission. Once the ceasefire agreement and weapons usage rules were established the discussion was limited to how these frameworks are met in JSDF operations. Now facing these challenges, Japan is reaching a point of considering models for the next PKO dispatch.
Needless to say, for the past quarter century, occasions when the PKO was at the center of Diet deliberations were extremely limited. The heated Diet deliberation over the International Peace Cooperation Law was a rather rare case. The arguments over the important amendment of the law in 2015 were not extensive.
However, we are not only currently facing problems. Atul Khare (Under-Secretary-General for Field Support) in June this year rated Japan's participation as "Contribution by the brain". He also stated that he was thinking to introduce a Japanese toilet that does not use water to the PKO sites as an example of technological innovation in equipment6 . This kind of contribution means that Japan can play a role in the public health area such as for the prevention of cholera and dysentery through technology and comparative advantage.
The aspect of comparative advantage is also recognized as a human contribution. Since May 29, 2017, the GSDF began training for Tanzanian military facility personnel in Nairobi. These attempts have already been advanced for the Kenyan army from 2015 to 20167 . However, human resource development in other countries is another possibility. As capacity building in other countries progresses, the possibility of their collaboration with Japan is also learned. Propagation of experience and technology also leads to improvement in activities at the PKO sites and will eventually contribute to overall upgrading of the level of PKO activities.
While the problems are emphasized in the case of South Sudan, Japan can expand PKO missions. What is going on and how will Japan proceed in the next quarter of a century? We are now at a turning point where we have to at least show a direction for future missions.
- June 2020,"Transformation of the International Order in the Middle East--- Varying Degrees of "Stateness" and Three Directions of the New Order" written by Satoshi Ikeuchi, Professor, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo
- June 2020,"Destabilization in the Middle East and its Impacts on Japan's Energy Security" written by Amane Kobayashi, Research Fellow, The Institute of Energy Economics
- May 2020: Urgent Recommendations "Toward a V-shaped Recovery after the Novel Coronavirus Pandemic "Coronavirus Testing for All" --- the First Step of the Next Phase"
- May 2020: "US Diplomacy toward Iran: Economic Sanctions as a Diplomatic Tool" Hiroki Sugita Columnist, Kyodo News
- "Russian Factors in the Middle East" Taisuke Abiru Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- "The SDF Dispatches to the Middle East --- History and Significance" Ippeita Nishida Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- March 2020, "Space and Security" Kazuto Suzuki Professor, Hokkaido University
- March 2020, "The US Security Space Policy --- With a Focus on the Establishment of Two Space Forces" Yasuhito Fukushima Chief Researcher, The National Institute for Defense Studies
- March 2020, "China's Recent Activities in Space and Cyberspace" Bonji Ohara Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- March 2020, "Environmental Security and Japan" Takashi Sekiyama Associate Professor, Kyoto University
- March 2020, "Changes in Global Environment and Security --- US Security Strategy" Hideshi Tokuchi Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS)
- February 2020, "Cyberspace Security" Motohiro Tsuchiya Professor, Keio University
- February 2020, "Japan's Space and Cyberspace Policy" Yukinari Hirose Former President of the National Institute for Defense Studies
- December 2019, "The US-China Confrontation --- Where Will Hegemony Reside Next?" Akio Takahara Professor, the University of Tokyo
- December 2019, "Challenges Facing the Chinese Economy" Osamu Tanaka Chief Senior Researcher, Institute of Developing Economies, JETRO
- December 2019, "US Strategic Perception on China: Implications for US Allied Partners" Tsuneo Watanabe Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- November 2019, "The Xi Jinping Administration's View of the International Order– China's emphasis on United Nations diplomacy and liberal economic policies−" Shin Kawashima, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- November 2019, "The Future of China's Security Strategy" Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- November 2019, "China --- Its Confidence and Anxiety" Bonji Ohara, Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- August 2019: Several Perspectives on the Korean Peninsula Issue--- The Deteriorating Japan-South Korea Relationship and the Uncertain Denuclearization of North Korea --- By Masahiro Akiyama Chairman, the SSDP
- July 2019, "An Outlook on the Denuclearization of North Korea--- What is the Stance of North Korea?---", Junya Nishino, Professor, Keio University
- July 2019, "An Outlook on the Denuclearization of North Korea --- How will the US move?", Narushige Michishita, Vice President, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- July 2019, "Discussion on Denuclearization of North Korea", SSDP Discussion Meeting on May 8, 2019
- May 2019: "Current Status and Prospects of South Korea and Japan's Frictions over History: How to address the Judicial Problems", Masao Okonogi, Professor Emeritus, Keio University
- May 2019: "South Korea and Japan's Frictions over History" (Comments), Junya Nishino, Professor, Keio University
- May 2019: Japan and South Korea Relationships (Question & Answer)
- March 2019: "The Present State and Prospects of the Indian Economy and Economic Policies" written by Koji Kobayashi, Senior Economist Mizuho Research Institute Ltd.
- March 2019: "The "Modi diplomacy" in the History of Indian diplomacy--- Departure from or maintenance of the traditional diplomacy? ---" written by Toru Ito, The National Defense Academy of Japan
- February 2019: Dynamics of Indian Politics and the 2019 General Elections, written by Chiharu Takenaka, Professor of Rikkyo University
- February 2019: "Cooperative Strategy" to Realize "Competitive Strategy"--- The composite structure of Japan's "Free and Open Indo-Pacific" strategy (vision) ---, written by Matake Kamiya, Professor at The National Defense Academy of Japan
- January 2019:, A paper, "How will the US midterm elections results affect the Trump administration's foreign policy for 2019?" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, the Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January 2019:, A paper, "The Present and Future of the International Trade Order" , written by Akihiko Tamura, Professor, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- December 2018: The US-China Competition and Japan, written by Ryo Sahashi, Professor at Kanagawa University
- December 2018: An Outlook for the US-China Trade War―What makes the two economically interdependent superpowers confront each other?―, written by Takashi Sekiyama, Associate professor at Toyo University
- September 2018: Proposal, "The Denuclearization of North Korea and the Restoration of Peace in the Korean Peninsula― Correct Perceptions and Eight Proposals on Japan's North Korea Diplomacy－" edited by the Society of Security and Diplomatic Policy Studies
- September 2018: "The Taiwan Policy of the Xi Jinping Administration in its Second Term: An Outlook on Cross-Strait Relations in the New Era" written by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Professor of the Tokyo University
- July 2018: "The EU States and Russia on North Korea Issues- Expansion of Influence through Diplomacy: Attempts and Limitations -" lectured by Yuichi Hosoya, Professor of Keio University
- "An Assessment of the US-North Korea Summit and an Outlook for the Future of the Korean Peninsula" lectured by Junya Nishino, Professor of Keio University
- "Korean Peninsula Issue and Japan's Future Security Policy" written by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow of National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- July 2018: "US North Korea policy affected by personnel changes in the Trump administration" lectured by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation.
- "China-North Korea relationship under Xi Jinping" lectured by Shin Kawashima, Professor of the Tokyo University.
- "North Korean Denuclearization and Russia" lectured by Nobuo Shimotomai, Professor of the Hosei University.
- March 2018: "The Network Hegemony Theory for a Security Architecture in The Asia Pacific Region" lectured by Masahiro Akiyama, Chairman, the Society of Security and Diplomatic Policy Studies
- January 2018: "A Destabilized Middle East" lectured by Koichiro Tanaka, Professor, Keio University
- December 2017: "Problems in Sino-Japanese Relations, 1992-2042" lectured by Ezra F. Vogel, Professor of the Social Sciences Emeritus at Harvard University
- November 2017: "The Future of the Asia-Pacific Region" written by Yoriko Kawaguchi, Fellow, the Meiji Institute for Global Affairs, Former Minister Foreign Affairs
- October 2017: "A New Trend in India's Foreign Policy and Japan" Written by HIROSE,Takako, Professor, Senshu University
- August 2017: "The Shocks that shook the Transatlantic World and their Implication for Japan's Foreign Policy" written by HOSOYA, Yuichi, Professor, Keio University
- August 2017: "Does Economic Interdependence not Encourage Collaboration? ―Thinking Japan-China Relations from an Economic Perspective―" written by Takashi SEKIYAMA, Ph.D., Toyo University
- July 2017: Proposal article "The Trump Administration's Impact on the Cross-Strait Relations" written by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Ph.D.
- June 2017: Proposal article "The outlook for the relationship between two great powers and implications for Japanese diplomacy" written by Professor Shin Kawashima
- May 2017: (Emergency Proposal) Facing the Inconvenient Truth: Re-examining Policy for Peace and Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula (Chief author, Masao Okonogi)
- March 2017: "Economic Influences of the Trump Administration" written by Professor Motoshige Ito
- February, 2017: Proposal article "Trump's Foreign and Security Policy - Unpredictable President, Realistic Secretaries - " written by Mr. Tsuneo Watanabe is posted on the website of SSDP.
- December, 2016: Proposal article "Reconsidering North Korea Policy: How to Deal with a Nuclear Armed Divided States" written by Professor Masao Okonogi is posted on the website of SSDP.
- May 2020: "Rivalries in the Middle East in New Security Dynamics", Written by Sayed Ghoneim, Major General (retired) of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Chairman, Institute for Global Security & Defence Affairs
- March 2020: The Japan-South Korea Relationship in a Cul-de-Sac--- Where is an Exit ? Masao Okonogi Professor Emeritus, Keio Universit
- December 2019: The Hong Kong Upheaval and the Future of Cross-Straits Relations－The 2019 Japan-Taiwan Strategic Dialogue Report OGATA, Makoto Former Chief of the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association in Taipei
- August 2019: Report; 2019 FUTURE CONSENSUS DIALOGUE --Sustainable Prosperity and Future of Korea-U.S.-Japan Cooperation-- By Future Consensus Institute (Yeosijae)
- June 2019: Report on India – Japan Security Dialogue 2019 by Ms. Vindu Mai Chotani, Ph.D Student, The University of Tokyo
June 2019: Four papers on Japan-India Cooperation submitted to India-Japan Security Dialogue 2019
Japan's Rationale for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision
Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, The Sasakawa Peace Foundation
The Significance and Possibilities of India-Japan Cooperation in the Concept of the Indo-Pacific
Toru ITO Associate Professor, National Defense Academy of Japan
Japan-India Defense Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific Context - Operationalizing the Security Aspect of the Indo-Pacific Vision –
Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS)
India-US-Japan Defense Cooperation: What's next?
Dr. Satoru Nagao, Hudson Institute
- Japan's Rationale for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision
- November 2018: "The Present State of the Japanese Economy and Policy Issues" lectured by Motoshige Itoh, Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo.
- November 2018: "Expanding Social Security Expenses and Fiscal Reforms" lectured by Kazumasa Oguro, Professor at Hosei University.
- September 2018: "Taiwan Identity and Cross-Strait Relations and Trump's Taiwan Policy and the Future of Taiwan-US Relations-Discussion at The Second Japan-Taiwan Strategic Dialogue (June 21, 2018, Taipei)-" written by OGATA, Makoto
- September 2018: "Japan-Taiwan Dialogue 2018 Minutes", 21st June 2018, Taipei, Taiwan.
- July 2018: Report on The Second Japan – Philippines Strategic Dialogue prepared by Ms. Vindu Mai Chotani, Ph.D. Student, Graduate School of Public Policy, Tokyo University.
- May 2018: "Civilian Control "at Crisis"? – Perhaps Not, for the Case of the Field Sit-reps from SDF's South Sudan Mission" reported by Ippeita Nishida, Research Fellow, the Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January 2018: "Fukushima, Genki？Project－Young Taiwanese volunteers introduce the facts on Fukushima's revival through documentary films－" reported by OGATA, Makoto, Former Chief of the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association in Taipei
- December 2017: "Commemorating a Quarter Century of Dispatches of the JSDF's PKO Units: Challenges and Possibilities in the Post South Sudan" written by Takayuki Shoji, Lecturer, Nihon University
- November 2017: "19th CCP National Congress" written by Mr. Bonji Ohara, Senior Research Fellow, the Sasakawa Peace Fondation
- October 2017: "What is Japan's Role in the Indo-China border conflict?" written by Dr. NGAO,Satoru, Research Fellow, Institute for Future Engineering
- July 2017: "Overview of the Current Situation in Taiwan-" the Naturally Independent Generation" will affect the Taiwan"s politics-" written by Makoto Ogata MGE.(Ret.)
- June 2017: "Japan-U.S. Economic Dialogue" written by Mr.Takaaki Asano
- March 2017: "The Japan-Philippines Strategic Dialogue" written by Mr. Hideshi Tokuchi
- February, 2017: Current topic "The Importance of Japan's Security Role Under Trump" written by Dr. Satoru Nagao is posted on the SSDP website.
- December, 2016: Current topic "Widening Security Task: Will SDF do the Job?" written by Mr. Ippeita Nishida is posted on the SSDP website.
- May 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no1) - Cyber, Space, Environment and Security - " March 2020 (English edition)
- February 2020, "A research journal "Security Studies (vol1 no4) " (English edition)"
- September 2019: A research journal "Security Studies (vol1 no3) " (English edition)
- August 2019: Korea-Japan Joint Seminar: FUTURE CONSENSUS DIALOGUE
- April 2019: "Security Studies (vol1 no2) April 2019"
- March 2019: A research journal "Security Studies vol1 no01" just published
- February 2019: The Denuclearization of North Korea and the Takeshima Issue
- December 2018: Former Vice Defense Minister Masahiro Akiyama's Memoirs (An Ad)
- November 2018: Participation in the Future Consensus Forum held in Beijing
- September 2018: "2018 Indo-Pacific Security Dialogue" reported by Masahiro Akiyama
- 2017 December: "The Butterfly Project-A possibility of showing a solution to the North Korea problem-"
- October 2017: Campaign on the problems with North Korea
- August 2017: A New Containment Policy Strategy
- June 2017: Korean peninsla
- March 2017: President Duterte
- February, 2017: Kazakhstan
- November, 2016: Participated in Astana Club 2016 held in Kazakhstan on November 14- 16, 2016.