Japan's National Security Policies and Science and Technology
1. Science and Technology Decide the Winner of Any War
Science and technology decide the winner of any war. The late 18th-century industrial revolution endowed European nations, located at the western end of the Eurasian continent, with the power to curve out the world like pieces of a cake. They became dominant precursors to shape the industrialized world in the 19th century. In the era of total wars in the first half of the 20th century, submarines, tanks, radar, aircraft, and other weapons incorporating the best of science debuted on the battlefields, killing tens of millions of people. Nuclear weapons, which appeared near the end of World War II, helped usher in the Cold War or a long period of cold peace. During the Cold War era, space satellites came into use for communication, reconnaissance, positioning, etc. At the end of the 20th century, computer performance improved significantly, and the 21st century witnessed the emergence of cyberspace. Until the leadup to World War II, Japan desperately kept up with military technology of the West. But the defeat in the war left Japan far behind in the areas of nuclear weapons, space satellites, and cyber weapons for the military purposes. Leaving Japan at a standstill, scientists in the world continued their strenuous efforts in quest of advanced technology. Science does not stop to make progress, and it continues to change the battlefields of tomorrow. Those who lag in the field of science and technology will lose on the battlefield. It is not desperate bravery but science and technology that determine the war's outcome.
(1) New warfare (Part 1) - Space war and information supremacy
In the first Gulf War led by President George W. H. Bush (41st), the US military used space assets and instantaneously demolished the Iraqi army. Near the end of the Cold War, Saddam Hussein's Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait. It was an outrageous act that trampled on the postwar international order embodied in the UN Charter. At that time, the US military first made full tactical use of positional information and image information (infrared, optical, and radar imageries) gathered by space satellites and time synchronization capabilities, in addition to intelligence from the Army, Navy, and Air Force, and pushed back the Iraqi forces. Reportedly China was deeply shocked to witness the new warfare.
The second Gulf War led by President George W. Bush (43rd) represented a culmination of RMA (Revolution in Military Affairs) driven by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. It was an information technology revolution in the military using advanced computing. Overwhelming information processing capabilities of advanced computers enabled the US military to instantaneously determine enemy positions, identify friend and foe, and allocate offensive assets for their own forces. Logistics units swiftly transported ammunition and supplies as much as needed to the battlefields as US forces moved. Saddam Hussein's army was overwhelmed by US forces, and the state of Iraq collapsed.
After the turn of the century, China shook the world by conducting an anti-satellite (ASAT) test. During the Cold War, there was a tacit agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union not to use space as a battlefield. China's ASAT test defied the agreements. In a moment, space was transformed from a combat support domain to a warfighting domain. The functions of space satellites (reconnaissance, positioning, time synchronization, and communication) became indispensable for modern warfare. However, space satellites are vulnerable to 1) physical attacks, 2) cyber-attacks, 3) jamming attacks, and 4) attacks against downlink ground facilities. Satellite hijacking (spoofing), GPS signal distortion, and space blackout emerge as real threats. An imminent challenge is the improvement of the resilience of space assets. The use of civilian constellation satellites (launching many satellites into low orbits) is underway.
The latest development related to Japan's space policy is the establishment of the Space Operation Squadron as a Japan Air Self-Defense Force unit. The squadron has begun to improve space surveillance capabilities (SSA: space situational awareness).
(2) New warfare (Part 2) - War in cyberspace and hybrid warfare
In 2014, Russia used a combination of cyber-attacks and special forces attacks to take the Crimean Peninsula from Ukraine. This incident marked the beginning of a hybrid war that astonished the international community.
Cyberspace is a bizarre space. There is no sound, no light, no distance, no time. Hackers can move at a moment's notice through the global web of computers and smartphones connected by optical fibers. There is no knowing when and who comes out of nowhere. A world engulfed in cyberspace is like a giant haunted house.
In the past, strategic bombing aimed at the enemy's political and economic centers was beyond the reach of a poor country. Now, a well-trained young cyber soldier can sever down the enemy's lifeline with a cyber-attack. Their targets include electricity (power plants and substations), gas, water, sewage, communication networks, high-speed railroads, and airport control. Among their other targets are financial centers such as banks and stock exchanges, industrial centers such as industrial complexes, and vulnerable nuclear power plants and dams. Today, if massive cyberattacks had come, the JSDF or Japan itself could be "already dead before they fight."
Cyber-attacks come unexpectedly like a slap on the cheek in the dark. Or a logic bomb embedded in one's system explodes. Nobody could know beforehand who is cyber attacking him or her. The theory of deterrence, which is predicated on transparency and a minimum level of trust, does not work. The only way available to defend oneself is an active defense; if cyberattacks come to his or her system, one needs to identify the enemy (attribution) as soon as possible and to strike back to stop consecutive attacks.
Malware intrusion takes place in peacetime. An exhaustive investigation of the adversary's computer system and time-consuming embedding of malware is where intelligence agencies can best exhibit their skill. Cyber-attacks are unleashed in contingency and peacetime alike. Proactive peacetime defensive measures are essential; for this purpose, it is imperative to watch the enemy's movements in peacetime.
At the end of this fiscal year, a long-awaited cyber operations unit will be launched in the JSDF. However, the JSDF does not have the legal right to active defense. Neither is it legally empowered to safeguard the government and critical infrastructures outside the military facilities. Furthermore, the JSDF possesses no attribution capability or offensive capabilities necessary for active defense. It is imperative to redress this situation as soon as possible.
Although the National Center of Incident Readiness and Strategy for Cybersecurity (NISC) addresses the cyber security situation, it is fundamentally a responsive organization to a situation, not a command post for building a robust system to ensure cyber security for the whole government and critical infrastructures. The absence of such a cyber security setup in the government is a grave problem.
(3) Future warfare: Drones and quantum science will drastically change the battlefield
What will future warfare look like? Robots and drones will serve for intelligence gathering and offensive operations. The unmanned battlefield is a global trend. Unmanned robotic weapons entail a question of who will make an ethical judgment at which stage; yet, they are much cheaper and more efficient in terms of performance than manned weapons. An unmanned fighter plane can withstand any g-force because there is no human on board; it needs no air conditioning, heating, or oxygen for breathing. It does not matter if, at worst, it gets shot down. Drones are capable of destroying the target by destroying themselves like kamikaze attacks. They are good at swarm attacks (mass attacks like a massive horde of grasshoppers). In the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, the Turkish-supported Azerbaijani army defeated the Russian-supported Armenian army by frequent drone attacks. The incident shocked the international community. In developed countries and China, the population will further decline and age. This means less and less human soldiers will be deployed on the battlefield. More and more drones will come to fight in their stead.
Quantum science will further increase in importance because it will radically transform human society in 10 to 20 years. It will likewise change the battlefield. In the 21st century, those who achieve dominance in quantum science will win on the battlefield.
1) Eavesdropping-proof quantum communication is already in practical use. 2) Quantum gyroscopes would make GPS satellites obsolete because the innovative device would be capable of an accurate position measurement using geomagnetism. Quantum gyroscopes are particularly useful for submarines, which must occasionally surface to measure their own location using GPS satellites. Quantum gyroscopes will allow drone submarines to destroy enemy ports with high accuracy. 3) Quantum cryptography will make current cryptanalysis obsolete. With quantum computers capable of decrypting ciphers, it will be possible to decipher current cryptographic communications stored as data. 4) The quantum computer boasts high calculation speeds and will dramatically increase the capacity and speed of information processing. Those advanced computers will drastically improve not only pharmaceuticals, materials, FinTech, automated driving but also information processing on the battlefield.
2. Alienation Unique to Japan of Scientific and Industrial Technology from National Defense
(1) Historical background: The "yoke of defeat" and the impact of the Cold War
Every advanced nation in the world knows that the advancement of science and technology is the key to national security. That is why science and technology budgets are huge to cover basic and applied research, R&D, venture capital, and military applications. In advancing social implementation, every country faces the "valley of death" or difficulties in bringing technology to market. Private investments will not flow into precocious technologies that the market (private companies) does not value from a profitability standpoint. Such technologies are stored to die. Or they are bought and outflow to foreign countries.
However, this must not be the case with advanced technology that could contribute to national security. Advanced technology applied for national security protects the nation, protects the people, and ultimately protects the lives of the JSDF personnel on the battlefield. Therefore, as far as sensitive technologies that can be a game-changer of warfare are concerned, the government makes massive investments in the name of security and shoulders high risks that private companies cannot bear. Such is the case with the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and China's "military-civil fusion" strategy. There is no "valley of death" in these two countries because huge bridges of security span the "valley of death."
In Japan, on the other hand, there is a unique situation in which scientific and industrial technology and national security are distinctly alienated. This constitutes a major impediment to the promotion of science and technology for the purpose of security policies, and technological security cooperation in the Japan-US alliance. Furthermore, the alienation is not only conducive to the decline of Japan's defense industry but also to the deterioration of the technological capabilities of the Japanese industry as a whole.
A reason for the above is a historical one. It is the curses of Japan's defeat in World War II and her involvement in the Cold War. Most importantly, Japan is a WWII loser. The headquarter of the US-led Allied occupation forces, fearing the revival of the Japanese Imperial Army and Navy that had mobilized a total of 10 million troops, aimed to completely eliminate Japan's technological and industrial capabilities to wage war while leaving Japan's security to the newly established United Nations. This is the true meaning of the renunciation of "war potential" stipulated in Article 9 Section 2 of the Japanese Constitution. Germany also had its coal, steel, and nuclear industries as sources of war potential internationalized by the European Community; its rocket engineers were forced to emigrate to the United States.
Wandering forlorn among piles of rubble, the Japanese people yearned for peace. Japanese academia and industry had to declare, "We will never be involved in the military affairs again," to continue their research and development. Even after the United States decided to support Japan's rearmament with the start of the Cold War and the Korean War, there still lingered among Americans a "cap in the bottle" argument that the United States should prevent the resurgence of Japanese militarism by the Japan-US Security Treaty system. The United States was initially skeptical about Japan's acquisition of space capabilities and nuclear technology. Japan was obliged to turn to France for cooperation. It was only relatively recently that the United States began to say, "Do whatever you like except nukes and be strong as quickly as possible."
Secondly, a profound domestic divide emerged due to Japan's involvement in the Cold War. As mentioned earlier, after the start of the Cold War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States decided to support the rearmament of Japan. Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida, who held the helm of newborn Japan, decided to continue the stationing of US troops in Japan and concluded the first Japan-US Security Treaty, followed by the inauguration of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Soviet Union, one of the Allied Powers, reacted vehemently to the move. The Soviet Union's policy towards Japan aimed at the withdrawal of US troops from Japan and the prevention of the revival of Japanese militarism, both of which were in their entirety taken over by the Japan Socialist Party advocating Japan's unarmed neutrality. In 1955, the Japan Socialist Party and the Liberal Democratic Party came into existence. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union was vicariously fought by the two political parties. Unlike the parties representing labor unions in the West (British Labour Party, French Socialist Party, Social Democratic Party of Germany, US Democratic Party, etc.), the Japan Socialist Party was a pro-Soviet member, and stood by the East. On national security, Japan could not come to a consensus because of the deep ideological division caused by the domestic Cold War. It contributed to the absence of security policy consensus among the Japanese people, which was unusual for any other western nations.
The leftward drift of the Japanese political media lasted into the 1980s even after the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan and the new Cold War began. Afterward, they took up diverse positions from conservative to reformist. Meanwhile, the Japanese academic world remained sympathetic to the leftist cause. In particular, the Science Council of Japan and other academic circles under the strong influence of some political parties opposed the rearmament of Japan and the Japan-US alliance, adhering to pacifism. Not directly but they represented the interests of the Soviet Union.
The Japanese academic community has consistently refused to cooperate with the Ministry of Defense or with the US Department of Defense. Even today, Japanese national universities do not hire any scholar as a faculty member unless he/she writes a note to the effect that he/she will not engage in military research. Self-Defense Force personnel are not allowed to enter graduate schools at national universities of science and technology. This is a clear discrimination. The similar exclusionist policy was adopted by national institutes under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (RIKEN, etc.) and those under the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), etc.). In Kasumigaseki, defense ministry's engineers and self-defense force's engineers had until recently been deprived of contacts with engineers of other ministries and agencies. When the Ministry of Defense launched the Security Technology Research Promotion System and proposed research exchanges with academia and the private sector, preparing a budget of 10 billion yen, the Science Council of Japan instructed the national universities to refuse cooperation. It is unusual that the Science Council of Japan that is a member agency of the Cabinet Office, is at odds with the policy of the Prime Minister who is the political leader chosen by the Japanese people. The government official should quit if his conviction is against the will of the master chosen by the people. There should be no civil servant in any part of the world who declares to the Prime Minister, "My opinion is against your opinion and I defy you, Prime Minister and you should keep me in this post." This anomaly has been tolerated for years in the Japanese government. It is because of the pacifism born in the defeat of World War II and the domestic political divide as a negative legacy of the Cold War. The Japanese academic circle, which, represented by the Science Council of Japan, is still bound by the heavy legacy of the past.
(2) The system of the current budget on scientific and industrial technology
Japan's annual budget for science and technology is worth four trillion yen. This accounts for 4% of the overall national budget of 100 trillion yen and is just under defense spending of 5 trillion yen. Given that the majority of the national budget goes to government bond redemption, medical care, pensions, and financial assistance to local governments, and that the sum left at the government's discretion is just 20 trillion yen, it is apparent that an extraordinary amount of taxpayers' precious money is being generously distributed to scientists without due consideration. The Council for Science and Technology Innovation (CSTI), presided over by the prime minister, is responsible for disbursing this 4 trillion yen, and the Director-General for Science, Technology and Innovation Policy of the Cabinet Office serves as the head of the council's secretariat.
The CSTI formulates the Basic Plan for Science and Technology and allocates 20 trillion yen following a five-year plan. The budget is managed by the Director-General for Science, Technology and Innovation Policy of the Cabinet Office, the Science and Technology Policy Bureau of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), and the Industrial Science and Technology Policy and Environment Bureau of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). The Science Council of Japan has a permanent seat on the CSTI. The Ministry of Defense in charge of national defense, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) in charge of pandemic prevention, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism responsible for natural disaster prevention remain excluded.
Out of the 4 trillion yen annual budget for science and technology, almost 2 trillion yen goes to national universities and research institutes through the Japan Science and Technology Foundation (JST) under the jurisdiction of the MEXT. One trillion yen goes to AIST through the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) under the jurisdiction of the METI, the remaining one trillion yen goes to the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) --- an MHLW-affiliated organization ---, and other government agencies. The Ministry of Defense's research spending is as tiny as 200 billion yen, while the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) under the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications --- an undisputed frontrunner in the field of information and communications technology --- is allocated with a modest budget worth 25 billion yen. Security concerns are not budgeted at all. Moreover, out of the 2 trillion yen mentioned above, 800 billion yen is appropriated for university administration (effectively subsidies) that has no connection with R&D; this funding constitutes huge vested interests in the academic world.
The problem is that national and public universities and national research institutes have been under the strong influence of the Science Council of Japan and some political parties, and have consistently refused cooperation with research institutes affiliated with the Ministry of Defense or the US Department of Defense since the end of World War II. The Japanese government has thus far provided budget in developing technologies possibly capable of contributing to national defense following the model of DARPA in US. But unsuccessful examples are "Moonshot Research and Development Program" and "Impulsing Paradigm Change through Disruptive Technologies Program (ImPACT)"that did not produce any new technology related to the national security. As long as the academic community declares that it will not engage in defense-related research, as long as the budget continues to be drained through the JST and NEDO, it will be almost impossible to promote the development of science and technology for the cause of national security.
(3) The way things should go: DARPA as an example
The prevailing philosophy should be that the advancement of science and technology in general forms the foundation of national security. Science and technology are the outcomes of researchers' strenuous endeavors. Just a very small number of scientists are rewarded with, for example, Nobel Prizes. That is why the government should support basic research, applied research, and even R&D efforts. But the valley of death between the academia and the market lies beyond this stage. To move from the research phase to the phase of industrial production, a huge financial risk should be taken. No private company will dare to take big risk unless they are profitable in the near future. The "valley of death" in Japan is notably deep. The government who should look into the future of 30 or 50 years later should cover the risk for the cause of national security, for the new technology might help revolutionize military technology. This is why the government should flexibly take big risk of making massive investments to new technologies to bridge the "valley of death." The reason why the government should, in defiance of the logic of the market, invest taxpayers' precious money in the venture business of new scientific technologies is that such investments are necessary for the progress of science that constitutes the core basis of national security.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the US Department of Defense provides funding for innovative ideas of an engineer who has gone through a strict screening process. The engineer assumes the obligation to complete a prototype and launch a venture company. The developed technology is first tested on the market and then is left to mature. (A typical successful example is Moderna, famous for its production of anti-coronavirus vaccines.) Once the technology has matured, it is brought to institutes such as RAND Corporation and the Mitre Cooperation that research how to apply it for military use. If the technology proves to be promising as a military technology, it will be implemented by the military industry. The Pentagon's budget on science and technology is 10 trillion yen, and the Department of Energy's 2 trillion yen. They account for 60% of the US government's total R&D budget of 20 trillion yen. This system is creating new scientific and industrial technologies one after another, representing the technological power of the United States. The same is more or less true for other countries, including China and its military-civil fusion strategy. Due to the absence of a similar system, Japan has lost its technological competitiveness.
To break this stalemate, I should like to recommend that independent of the JST and NEDO, an international center for quantum and cyber research be established in Yokosuka, where communications technology laboratories of NTT and the JSDF are located. Following the example of Israel's Beersheba, Japan should think of creating a second Tsukuba Science City that is free from the "yoke of defeat" and the negative legacy of the Cold War, both of which still bind the Japanese academia.
As for economic security, in addition to the issues described above, there are issues such as supply chain resilience, prior checks and regulations for critical infrastructures protection, cyber security, and confidential patents. At the Cornwall Summit in 2021, the "G7 Panel on Economic Resilience" (on which the author served as a panelist from the Japanese side) submitted, in response to a request for advice from British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, a report focusing on supply chain resilience and cyber security (https://www.g7uk.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/G7-Economic-Resilience-Panel-Report.pdf).
On February 1, 2022, a report by the government panel on legislation for economic security was submitted to the government. I was a panelist in it.
In addition to the public-private cooperation on fostering emerging technologies discussed in this essay, the report elaborates on confidential patents, supply chain resilience, and the safety of critical infrastructures.
(Professor, Doshisya University)
December 2022, Proposal "Defending Our Country – Defense Policy in a New Cold War Era" was announced
- Front Cover
- Changes in the Security Environment Surrounding Japan - Shifting Power Balance and the Three Front Threats Ken Jimbo
- How Will "Japan Contingencies" Emerge? Osamu Onoda
- The Japan-US Alliance Revisited: Is it Dependable? Chikako Kawakatsu Ueki
- A New Phase of Defense Diplomacy and Defense Production and Technology Base Ippeita Nishida, Tsuneo Watanabe
- Intelligence Activities in the Post-Ukraine War Era Jun Nagashima
- Responding to the Nuclear Threat Masashi Murano
- No Time to Lose for Improving Japan's Defense Capabilities - Can the JSDF Defend the Homeland? - Ryoichi Oriki
- Toward the Formulation of a New "National Security Strategy" Hideshi Tokuchi
- October 2022, "Japan-China Relations under the Long-term Administration of Xi Jinping: Current Status, Prospects, and Expectations" written by Kazuyuki Suwa, Professor, University of Shizuoka
- October 2022, "China's Policy on the Global South --- China's World View and the Configuration of the US-China Confrontation " written by Shin Kawashima, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- October 2022, "Military Strategy of Xi Jinping's China" written by Bonji Ohara, Senior Fellow, Sasagawa Peace Foundation
- September 2022, " Social Governance by the Communist Party of China: The Present State and the Future Prospects " written by Kazuko Kojima, Professor, Keio University
- September 2022, "The Relationship between Domestic Politics and Diplomacy under the Xi Jinping Administration- Why Were the Large-Scale Military Exercises Decided?" written by Chisako T. Masuo, Professor, Kyushu University
- September 2022, "Xi Jinping's China--- Prospects for Its Climate Change Policy ---" written by Takashi Sekiyama, Associate Professor, The University of Kyoto
- August 2022, " Current Assessment of the Xi Jinping's Rule and Prospects for the Third Term of the Xi Administration " written by Takashi Suzuki, Associate Professor, Aichi Prefectural University
- August 2022, " Economic Challenges Awaiting the Xi Jinping Administration As it Enters its Third Term" written by Toshiya Tsugami, Director, Tsugami Toshiya's Works
- July 2022, "The Russian Invasion of Ukraine and the Future International Legal Order" written by Masahiro Kurosaki, Associate Professor, National Defense Academy
- July 2022, "The Ukraine War and Security in East Asia" written by Narushige Michishita, Vice President, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- July 2022, "How Will the Ukraine War Change the New US-China Cold War?" written by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- July 2022, "Impact of the Ukraine War on the Global Economy" written by Tatsuhiko Yoshizaki, Chief Economist, Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd.
- June 2022, "Why War Occurs in Europe?--The Structural Transformation of the European Security Order in the Post-Cold War Era --" written by Yuichi Hosoya, Professor, Keio University
- June 2022,"The Russia-Ukrainian War and the Behind-the-Scenes Stance of the United States" "On Economic Security" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- June 2022, "The Russia-Ukraine War and NATO", written by Michito Tsuruoka, Associate Professor, Keio University
- June 2022, "The Ukrainian War Viewed from Theories of International Politics" written by Matake Kamiya, Professor, National Defens Academy
- March 2022, "Economic Security Challenges and Cyber Security" written by Jun Osawa, Senior Research Fellow, Nakasone Peace Institute
- March 2022, "On Economic Security" written by Matake Kamiya, Professor, the Ntional Defense Academy
- March 2022, ""Economic Security" and the Review of the 2013 NSS and the Related Strategy Documents" written by Nobushige Takamizawa, Visiting Professor, the University of Tokyo
- March 2022, "The US-China Rivalry and Economic Security" written by Yuzo Murayama, Professor, Doshisya University
- March 2022, "Japan's National Security Policies and Science and Technology" written by Nobukatsu Kanehara, Professor, Doshisya University
- March 2022, "Economic Security in the Free Trade Regime" written by Kazuto Suzuki, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- January 2022, "The 2022 South Korean Presidential Election and the Next Administration's Foreign and Security Policy" written by Junya Nishino, Professor, Keio University
- January 2022, "North Korea's Nuclear and Missile Development and Japan's Defense" written by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, GRIPS
- January 2022, "What will Become of Japan-South Korea Relations? The 1965 Japan-South Korea Treaty System in Jeopardy" written by Masao Okonogi, Professor Emeritus, Keio University
- December 2021, "Economic and Social Conditions in North Korea and its Relations with South Korea" written by Mitsuhiro Mimura, Chief Research Fellow, The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia.
- December 2021, "China's Korean Peninsula Policy and North Korea" written by Shin Kawashima, Professor, the University of Tokyo.
- December 2021, "China's Korean Peninsula Policy and North Korea" written by Shunji Hiraiwa, Professor, Nanzan University.
- December 2021, "What to Do with the Relations with North Korea?" written by Hitoshi Tanaka, Chairman for Institute for International Strategy at the Japan Research Institute.
- October 2021, "Strategic Implications of North Korea's Enhanced Nuclear and Missile Capabilities" written by Narushige Michishita, Vice President, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
- October 2021, "The Biden Administration's North Korea Policy: Its Low Priority and Looming Crises" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation.
- October 2021, "The Evolution of the US-ROK Alliance: Tasks in the Biden Era" written by Yasuyo Sakata, Professor, Kanda University of International Studies.
- September 2021, "The Development of Regional Security Architecture: From Asia-Pacific to Indo-Pacific" written by Ken Jimbo, Professor, Keio University.
- September 2021, "The Strategic Development of Japanese Security Cooperation under Superpower Competition and the Development of the FOIP and its Operationalization" written by Nobushige Takamizawa, Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Public Policy, The University of Tokyo.
- August 2021, "Security Perceptions of Central Asian Countries--- From the Perspective of China Studies ---" written by Shin Kawashima, Professor, the University of Tokyo.
- August 2021, "Security in the Indian Ocean Region---Implication of the Galwan Incident for QUAD in the Indo-Pacific" written by Dr. Satoru Nagao, Fellow (Non-Resident), Hudson Institute.
- August 2021, "Easternization and Security in Asia" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation.
- July 2021, "The Ideas of "Autonomy" and "Self-Reliance" in Contemporary India's Foreign Strategy" written by Kazutoshi TAMARI, Associate Professor,Chukyo University.
- July 2021, "Thailand's Security Policies and Threat Perceptions" written by Saya Kiba, Associate Professor, Komatsu University, Faculty of Intercultural Communication.
- July 2021, "Myanmar's Security Perceptions and the February 1 Coup d'Etat" written by Yoshihiro Nakanishi, Associate Professor, Kyoto University.
- July 2021, "Australia's Security Perceptions and the "Asia Threat"" written byTomohiko Satake, Senior Fellow, Defense Policy Division, Policy Studies Department, NIDS .
- June 2021, "The Indo-Pacific Regional Architecture: Its Future--- Multipolar Order Beyond US-China Relations ---" by Tsutomu Kikuchi, Professor, Aoyama Gakuin University
- June 2021, "The Quad Plus in the Security of Asia: Its Significance and Outlook" by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- June 2021, "Indonesian Views and Perceptions on National Security" by Nobuhiro Aizawa, Associate Professor, The Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies, Kyushu University
- June 2021, "Normalized Tensions in the Cross-Strait Relations--- Structural Changes in Taiwanese Society and the Xi Jinping Administration's Strategic Shift ---" by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Professor, The University of Tokyo
- June 2021, "China's Maritime Strategy and Responses of the United States and Japan" by Yoji Koda, Former Commander in Chief, Self Defense Fleet
- June 2021, "The South China Issues from the Perspective of the International Law Order",by Shigeki Sakamoto, Emeritus Professor, Kobe University
- May 2021, "Indonesian Views and Perceptions on National Security" by Nobuhiro Aizawa, Associate Professor, Kyushu University
- May, 2021, "The Philippine Foreign and Security Policy Perspective" written by Yusuke Takagi Associate Professor,National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
- May, 2021, "Vietnam's Security: Challenges and Responses" written by Tomotaka Shoji Head, Asia and Africa Division, Regional Studies Department, National Institute for Defense Studies
- March, 2021, "Can the Biden Administration Restore America as a Global Leader?" written by Matake Kamiya, Professor, the National Defense Academy of Japan.
- March, 2021, "The Biden Administration and Japan's Security Strategy" written by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
- February,2021, "US Foreign and Security Policy Direction Viewed from the Biden Administration's Lineup" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- February,2021, "Trade Policies of the Biden Administration" written by Takaaki Asano, Senior Analyst, Sumitomo Corporation Global Research Co. Ltd.
- February,2021, "The Biden Administration's Policy toward Russia" written by Taisuke Abiru, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January,2021, "Will US Policy Toward China Change?" lectured by Ryo Sahashi, Associate Professor, the University of Tokyo
- January,2021, "How will China View the Biden Administration?" written by Bonji Ohara, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January,2021, "An Assessment of the 2020 US Presidential Election－American Democracy Now－" lectured by Fumiaki Kubo, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- January,2021, "Two Trumpian Mysteries－Why did Trump win over 70 million votes? Why is his outrageous behavior unchecked?－" lectured by Kazuhiro Maeshima, Professor, Sophia University
- September, 2020, "The Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic and Internationa Relationsl" by Matake Kamiya, Professor, National Defense Academy of Japan
- September, 2020, "The Policy Agenda for the Xi Jinping Administration- COVID-19 Countermeasures and China's International Relations -" by Shin Kawashima, Professor, The University of Tokyo
- "Control in the United States and International Relations" by Koji Murata, Professor, Doshisha University
- September, 2020, "The EU's Response to COVID-19 and International Relations" by Yuichi Hosoya, Professor, Keio University
- August, 2020, "The Corona Crisis Seen from a Macroeconomic Perspective" written by Motoshige Itoh, Professor Emeritus, The University of Tokyo
- August, 2020, "The Coronavirus Pandemic and Japan's Infectious Disease Control" written by Takashi Mihara, Senior Research Fellow, NLI Research Institute
- August, 2020, "Infectious Disease Crisis Control in Japan- Recommendations on an Exit Strategy -" written by Kazumasa Oguro, Professor, Hosei University
- August, 2020, "Security against Infectious Disease Threats --- Policy Responses Abroad" written by Takashi Sekiyama, Associate Professor, Kyoto University
- June 2020,"Transformation of the International Order in the Middle East--- Varying Degrees of "Stateness" and Three Directions of the New Order" written by Satoshi Ikeuchi, Professor, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo
- June 2020,"Destabilization in the Middle East and its Impacts on Japan's Energy Security" written by Amane Kobayashi, Research Fellow, The Institute of Energy Economics
- May 2020: Urgent Recommendations "Toward a V-shaped Recovery after the Novel Coronavirus Pandemic "Coronavirus Testing for All" --- the First Step of the Next Phase"
- May 2020: "US Diplomacy toward Iran: Economic Sanctions as a Diplomatic Tool" Hiroki Sugita Columnist, Kyodo News
- "Russian Factors in the Middle East" Taisuke Abiru Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- "The SDF Dispatches to the Middle East --- History and Significance" Ippeita Nishida Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- March 2020, "Space and Security" Kazuto Suzuki Professor, Hokkaido University
- March 2020, "The US Security Space Policy --- With a Focus on the Establishment of Two Space Forces" Yasuhito Fukushima Chief Researcher, The National Institute for Defense Studies
- March 2020, "China's Recent Activities in Space and Cyberspace" Bonji Ohara Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- March 2020, "Environmental Security and Japan" Takashi Sekiyama Associate Professor, Kyoto University
- March 2020, "Changes in Global Environment and Security --- US Security Strategy" Hideshi Tokuchi Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS)
- February 2020, "Cyberspace Security" Motohiro Tsuchiya Professor, Keio University
- February 2020, "Japan's Space and Cyberspace Policy" Yukinari Hirose Former President of the National Institute for Defense Studies
- December 2019, "The US-China Confrontation --- Where Will Hegemony Reside Next?" Akio Takahara Professor, the University of Tokyo
- December 2019, "Challenges Facing the Chinese Economy" Osamu Tanaka Chief Senior Researcher, Institute of Developing Economies, JETRO
- December 2019, "US Strategic Perception on China: Implications for US Allied Partners" Tsuneo Watanabe Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- November 2019, "The Xi Jinping Administration's View of the International Order– China's emphasis on United Nations diplomacy and liberal economic policies−" Shin Kawashima, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- November 2019, "The Future of China's Security Strategy" Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- November 2019, "China --- Its Confidence and Anxiety" Bonji Ohara, Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- August 2019: Several Perspectives on the Korean Peninsula Issue--- The Deteriorating Japan-South Korea Relationship and the Uncertain Denuclearization of North Korea --- By Masahiro Akiyama Chairman, the SSDP
- July 2019, "An Outlook on the Denuclearization of North Korea--- What is the Stance of North Korea?---", Junya Nishino, Professor, Keio University
- July 2019, "An Outlook on the Denuclearization of North Korea --- How will the US move?", Narushige Michishita, Vice President, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- July 2019, "Discussion on Denuclearization of North Korea", SSDP Discussion Meeting on May 8, 2019
- May 2019: "Current Status and Prospects of South Korea and Japan's Frictions over History: How to address the Judicial Problems", Masao Okonogi, Professor Emeritus, Keio University
- May 2019: "South Korea and Japan's Frictions over History" (Comments), Junya Nishino, Professor, Keio University
- May 2019: Japan and South Korea Relationships (Question & Answer)
- March 2019: "The Present State and Prospects of the Indian Economy and Economic Policies" written by Koji Kobayashi, Senior Economist Mizuho Research Institute Ltd.
- March 2019: "The "Modi diplomacy" in the History of Indian diplomacy--- Departure from or maintenance of the traditional diplomacy? ---" written by Toru Ito, The National Defense Academy of Japan
- February 2019: Dynamics of Indian Politics and the 2019 General Elections, written by Chiharu Takenaka, Professor of Rikkyo University
- February 2019: "Cooperative Strategy" to Realize "Competitive Strategy"--- The composite structure of Japan's "Free and Open Indo-Pacific" strategy (vision) ---, written by Matake Kamiya, Professor at The National Defense Academy of Japan
- January 2019:, A paper, "How will the US midterm elections results affect the Trump administration's foreign policy for 2019?" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, the Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January 2019:, A paper, "The Present and Future of the International Trade Order" , written by Akihiko Tamura, Professor, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- December 2018: The US-China Competition and Japan, written by Ryo Sahashi, Professor at Kanagawa University
- December 2018: An Outlook for the US-China Trade War―What makes the two economically interdependent superpowers confront each other?―, written by Takashi Sekiyama, Associate professor at Toyo University
- September 2018: Proposal, "The Denuclearization of North Korea and the Restoration of Peace in the Korean Peninsula― Correct Perceptions and Eight Proposals on Japan's North Korea Diplomacy－" edited by the Society of Security and Diplomatic Policy Studies
- September 2018: "The Taiwan Policy of the Xi Jinping Administration in its Second Term: An Outlook on Cross-Strait Relations in the New Era" written by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Professor of the Tokyo University
- July 2018: "The EU States and Russia on North Korea Issues- Expansion of Influence through Diplomacy: Attempts and Limitations -" lectured by Yuichi Hosoya, Professor of Keio University
- "An Assessment of the US-North Korea Summit and an Outlook for the Future of the Korean Peninsula" lectured by Junya Nishino, Professor of Keio University
- "Korean Peninsula Issue and Japan's Future Security Policy" written by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow of National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- July 2018: "US North Korea policy affected by personnel changes in the Trump administration" lectured by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation.
- "China-North Korea relationship under Xi Jinping" lectured by Shin Kawashima, Professor of the Tokyo University.
- "North Korean Denuclearization and Russia" lectured by Nobuo Shimotomai, Professor of the Hosei University.
- March 2018: "The Network Hegemony Theory for a Security Architecture in The Asia Pacific Region" lectured by Masahiro Akiyama, Chairman, the Society of Security and Diplomatic Policy Studies
- January 2018: "A Destabilized Middle East" lectured by Koichiro Tanaka, Professor, Keio University
- December 2017: "Problems in Sino-Japanese Relations, 1992-2042" lectured by Ezra F. Vogel, Professor of the Social Sciences Emeritus at Harvard University
- November 2017: "The Future of the Asia-Pacific Region" written by Yoriko Kawaguchi, Fellow, the Meiji Institute for Global Affairs, Former Minister Foreign Affairs
- October 2017: "A New Trend in India's Foreign Policy and Japan" Written by HIROSE,Takako, Professor, Senshu University
- August 2017: "The Shocks that shook the Transatlantic World and their Implication for Japan's Foreign Policy" written by HOSOYA, Yuichi, Professor, Keio University
- August 2017: "Does Economic Interdependence not Encourage Collaboration? ―Thinking Japan-China Relations from an Economic Perspective―" written by Takashi SEKIYAMA, Ph.D., Toyo University
- July 2017: Proposal article "The Trump Administration's Impact on the Cross-Strait Relations" written by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Ph.D.
- June 2017: Proposal article "The outlook for the relationship between two great powers and implications for Japanese diplomacy" written by Professor Shin Kawashima
- May 2017: (Emergency Proposal) Facing the Inconvenient Truth: Re-examining Policy for Peace and Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula (Chief author, Masao Okonogi)
- March 2017: "Economic Influences of the Trump Administration" written by Professor Motoshige Ito
- February, 2017: Proposal article "Trump's Foreign and Security Policy - Unpredictable President, Realistic Secretaries - " written by Mr. Tsuneo Watanabe is posted on the website of SSDP.
- December, 2016: Proposal article "Reconsidering North Korea Policy: How to Deal with a Nuclear Armed Divided States" written by Professor Masao Okonogi is posted on the website of SSDP.
- March 2022, A remembrance seminar "Remembering Professor Ezra Vogel" held on January 17, 2022
- March 2021, Japan-ROK Parliamentary Dialogue -Japan-ROK Cooperation in the Era of US-China Competition- held on March 11, 2021
- December 2020: The report of the Japan-ROK Future Dialogue held on November 21 to discuss "Japan-ROK Cooperation in the Post-Covid-19 Era
- October 2020: "Responses to COVID-19 and Agendas for the Post-COVID-19 Era", A Brief Overview of the Japan-Korea Experts Dialogue held on July 29,30, 2020
- October 2020: "The China-Taiwan Confrontation over Corona Response and Taiwan's Security" written by Makoto Ogata, Former Chief of the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association in Taipei
- May 2020: "Rivalries in the Middle East in New Security Dynamics", Written by Sayed Ghoneim, Major General (retired) of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Chairman, Institute for Global Security & Defence Affairs
- March 2020: The Japan-South Korea Relationship in a Cul-de-Sac--- Where is an Exit ? Masao Okonogi Professor Emeritus, Keio Universit
- December 2019: The Hong Kong Upheaval and the Future of Cross-Straits Relations－The 2019 Japan-Taiwan Strategic Dialogue Report OGATA, Makoto Former Chief of the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association in Taipei
- August 2019: Report; 2019 FUTURE CONSENSUS DIALOGUE --Sustainable Prosperity and Future of Korea-U.S.-Japan Cooperation-- By Future Consensus Institute (Yeosijae)
- June 2019: Report on India – Japan Security Dialogue 2019 by Ms. Vindu Mai Chotani, Ph.D Student, The University of Tokyo
June 2019: Four papers on Japan-India Cooperation submitted to India-Japan Security Dialogue 2019
Japan's Rationale for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision
Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, The Sasakawa Peace Foundation
The Significance and Possibilities of India-Japan Cooperation in the Concept of the Indo-Pacific
Toru ITO Associate Professor, National Defense Academy of Japan
Japan-India Defense Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific Context - Operationalizing the Security Aspect of the Indo-Pacific Vision –
Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS)
India-US-Japan Defense Cooperation: What's next?
Dr. Satoru Nagao, Hudson Institute
- Japan's Rationale for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision
- November 2018: "The Present State of the Japanese Economy and Policy Issues" lectured by Motoshige Itoh, Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo.
- November 2018: "Expanding Social Security Expenses and Fiscal Reforms" lectured by Kazumasa Oguro, Professor at Hosei University.
- September 2018: "Taiwan Identity and Cross-Strait Relations and Trump's Taiwan Policy and the Future of Taiwan-US Relations-Discussion at The Second Japan-Taiwan Strategic Dialogue (June 21, 2018, Taipei)-" written by OGATA, Makoto
- September 2018: "Japan-Taiwan Dialogue 2018 Minutes", 21st June 2018, Taipei, Taiwan.
- July 2018: Report on The Second Japan – Philippines Strategic Dialogue prepared by Ms. Vindu Mai Chotani, Ph.D. Student, Graduate School of Public Policy, Tokyo University.
- May 2018: "Civilian Control "at Crisis"? – Perhaps Not, for the Case of the Field Sit-reps from SDF's South Sudan Mission" reported by Ippeita Nishida, Research Fellow, the Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January 2018: "Fukushima, Genki？Project－Young Taiwanese volunteers introduce the facts on Fukushima's revival through documentary films－" reported by OGATA, Makoto, Former Chief of the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association in Taipei
- December 2017: "Commemorating a Quarter Century of Dispatches of the JSDF's PKO Units: Challenges and Possibilities in the Post South Sudan" written by Takayuki Shoji, Lecturer, Nihon University
- November 2017: "19th CCP National Congress" written by Mr. Bonji Ohara, Senior Research Fellow, the Sasakawa Peace Fondation
- October 2017: "What is Japan's Role in the Indo-China border conflict?" written by Dr. NGAO,Satoru, Research Fellow, Institute for Future Engineering
- July 2017: "Overview of the Current Situation in Taiwan-" the Naturally Independent Generation" will affect the Taiwan"s politics-" written by Makoto Ogata MGE.(Ret.)
- June 2017: "Japan-U.S. Economic Dialogue" written by Mr.Takaaki Asano
- March 2017: "The Japan-Philippines Strategic Dialogue" written by Mr. Hideshi Tokuchi
- February, 2017: Current topic "The Importance of Japan's Security Role Under Trump" written by Dr. Satoru Nagao is posted on the SSDP website.
- December, 2016: Current topic "Widening Security Task: Will SDF do the Job?" written by Mr. Ippeita Nishida is posted on the SSDP website.
- October 2022, Research Jounal "Security Studies (vol 4 no 3)" - Xi Jinping's China - Politics, Economy, Society and Diplomacy - was published.
- Jun 2022, Research Jounal "Security Studies (vol 4 no 2)" -The Russia-Ukraine War and Its Global Impact- was published.
- March 2022, Research Jounal "Security Studies (vol 4 no 1)"-What is Economic Security?- was published.
- December 2021, Research Jounal "Security Studies (vol 3 no 4)"-Korean Peninsula Situation- was published.
- September 2021, A research journal "Security Studies vol03 no03" -Asia's Security II- (English edition)
- June 2021, A research journal "Security Studies vol03 no02" -Asia's Security I- (English edition)
- March 2021: Research journal "Security Studies (vol3 no1) "- US Foreign Policy in the Biden Administration / The 2020 US Presidential Election and American Democracy -(English edition)
- December 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no4) "- Normalize Japan-South Korea Relations trough Dialogues -(English edition)
- September 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no3) "-The Novel Coronavirus and Security-(English edition)
- July 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no2) - Middle East Situation and Japan's Security - " (English edition) was published
- May 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no1) - Cyber, Space, Environment and Security - " March 2020 (English edition)
- February 2020, "A research journal "Security Studies (vol1 no4) " (English edition)"
- September 2019: A research journal "Security Studies (vol1 no3) " (English edition)
- August 2019: Korea-Japan Joint Seminar: FUTURE CONSENSUS DIALOGUE
- April 2019: "Security Studies (vol1 no2) April 2019"
- March 2019: A research journal "Security Studies vol1 no01" just published
- February 2019: The Denuclearization of North Korea and the Takeshima Issue
- December 2018: Former Vice Defense Minister Masahiro Akiyama's Memoirs (An Ad)
- November 2018: Participation in the Future Consensus Forum held in Beijing
- September 2018: "2018 Indo-Pacific Security Dialogue" reported by Masahiro Akiyama
- 2017 December: "The Butterfly Project-A possibility of showing a solution to the North Korea problem-"
- October 2017: Campaign on the problems with North Korea
- August 2017: A New Containment Policy Strategy
- June 2017: Korean peninsla
- March 2017: President Duterte
- February, 2017: Kazakhstan
- November, 2016: Participated in Astana Club 2016 held in Kazakhstan on November 14- 16, 2016.