Epidemic Control in the United States and International Relations
Professor, Doshisha University
Americans can always be trusted to do the right thing, once all other possibilities have been exhausted.
Winston Churchill 1
Introduction: The Trump-Corona Syndrome
In the United States, the number of people infected with the novel coronavirus (from here abbreviated as "corona") per day exceeded 50,000 on July 5, 2020; as of July 15, the total number of infected people reached 3.43 million, and the cumulative total of deaths exceeded 136,000. The United States is the world's worst in terms of cases and deaths. The death tolls of 130,000 surpassed the cumulative total of American war dead since the Vietnam War. Independence Day in the US this year came amid the outbreak of corona.
Initially, President Donald Trump downplayed the impact of corona and repeated hope for the country to resume normal economic activities by Easter (April 12). However, due to the ensuing rapid deterioration of the situation, President Trump suddenly began to call himself a "wartime president." He vehemently criticized China suspected to be the source of corona and the WHO, both of which allegedly committed blunders in their initial responses to corona, and attempted to pass on to others the responsibility for failing to check the outbreak in the United States. Partly because of China's provocative attitude, US public opinion on China has significantly deteriorated; more and more voices are talking about the US-China New Cold War. On May 25, to make matters worse, a black man named George Floyd was killed by a white police officer in suburban Minneapolis. The case ignited an anti-racism movement (Black Lives matter: BLM) that spread across the country and then throughout the world. Public backlash grows as President Trump has taken a tough stance against the movement. The US presidential election is imminent --- just months away on November 3.
In this manner, President Trump's words and deeds and misgovernment have combined with the corona pandemic to have a grave impact on the domestic affairs and diplomacy of the United States and on its international relations with other countries. It is, so to speak, the Trump-Corona Syndrome. As an example of an infectious disease that affected US politics, we will review the measures against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by the Ronald Reagan administration. After looking into the background to the emergence of President Trump, we will examine the possible impact of the Trump-Corona Syndrome on US domestic affairs, diplomacy, and relations with other countries. Lastly, we will also discuss Japan's response.
AIDS as a Precedent
In 1979, a Los Angeles practitioner noted that many male gay patients suffered from a fever of unknown cause, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and chronic diarrhea. The following year, many such cases occurred in New York. In May 1981, a gay community newspaper reported a strange pneumonia epidemic, and finally on July 3, the New York Times carried on its front page an article entitled "A rare cancer found in 41 gay men." In 1982, the disease became known as AIDS. However, the disease was initially named "Gay-related immune deficiency syndrome (GRID)," and even "gay cancer," because it spread primarily among gays. Gays were an unacceptable "social cancer" for the social and religious conservatives supporting the Reagan administration. Homophobia emphasized the "naturalness" of heterosexual love and helped to complement American "masculinity." In 1984-85, when AIDS spread across the country, according to a White House doctor, President Reagan thought the disease was measles and would abate in due course. 2 Abhorrence of wearing a mask amid the corona pandemic is related to the image of "masculinity." President Trump repeated remarks downplaying the corona pandemic.
On October 2, 1985, the handsome movie star Rock Hudson died of AIDS. On the cover of the July issue of Life magazine, the headline read, "Now No One is Safe from AIDS." "That such an icon (Rock Hudson) could be revealed to be both gay and sick with AIDS exacerbated the crisis of American masculinity, already in upheaval in the aftermath of the Vietnam War." (Marita Sturken) 3
In 1987, the Reagan administration invested $1.6 billion in fighting AIDS. There is no doubt that the President was slow to take measures against AIDS, and there were within the administration many people hostile to gays. Encouragement of the use of condoms to prevent AIDS was highly likely to invite opposition from the conservatives. As if to compensate for the President's inaction, the popular actress Elizabeth Taylor, a friend of Rock Hudson's, became a co-founder of the Foundation for AIDS Research in 1985 and founded the Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation in 1993. 4 Incidentally, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has also donated more than $300 million to control the corona pandemic, which accounts for nearly 10% of the annual budget of the WHO.
The WHO launched its anti-AIDS program (Global Program on AIDS: WHO-GPA) in 1985 but failed to raise sufficient funds. A decade later in 1995, the United Nations Joint AIDS Program was established. This project brought together a wide range of actors from state leaders to grassroots civic movements. At the UN Security Council meeting in January 2001, US Vice President Albert Gore, Jr. designated AIDS as a threat to international peace and security. The Security Council resolution in July of the same year approved that all UN Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) should implement an HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) prevention program. In 2003, President George W. Bush announced that the United States would provide $15 billion over five years for worldwide AIDS prevention and treatment, and the President and the bipartisan Congress launched the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Five years later, the United States formulated in this connection a budget worth $30 billion over another five years. 5
According to the United Nations Joint AIDS Program, the number of HIV-infected people peaked in 1996 and has since decreased. As of 2017, however, it was more than 36 million, and the cumulative total for approximately 40 years was 78 million. During this period, 35 million people died of AIDS. Total death tolls in the United States are 700,000. Although 70% of infections in the world exist in the sub-Saharan region, the number of new infections has recently been increasing in Russia, the Middle East, and Brazil. 6
AIDS was such a monumental epidemic that it produced numerous conspiracy theories. In Africa, many believe that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) created AIDS by gene recombination technology and spread it to eradicate black people. A Kenyan Nobel Peace Laureate, Wangari Maathai, and Zimbabwe's former President Robert Mugabe also referred in public to the possibility of such a plot. Also, in 1999, a former WHO employee-turned-journalist argued in his book that an experimental polio vaccine tested in Africa in the 1950s gave rise to AIDS, causing a stir. 7 Regarding the corona pandemic, there are similar theories like one that COVID-19 is a Chinese biological weapon or that of Bill Gates' alleged involvement in a plan of using a COVID-19 vaccine to implant monitoring microchips in billions of people.
AIDS and COVID-19 are not only different in how they are transmitted, but how they affect the human body. However, there are definite similarities in that the US administration's initial response was delayed; that they led to discrimination, prejudice, and conspiracy theories; and that they scarred America's identity. Among other significant lessons from the disasters of the diseases that struck us are: that private foundations are capable of supplementing government measures; that national response requires high-level leadership; and that multilateral cooperation led by, among others, the United Nations is of overriding importance.
Background of the Emergence of President Trump --- "Royal Straight Flush"
Looking back on American history in the 20th century, many politicians who can be called populists appeared. For example, Senator Huey Long (ex-Louisiana governor), who, assassinated in 1935, had intended to challenge President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 Presidential Election. He is the model of the protagonist of the motion picture "All The King's Men" (1949, a remake in 2006) directed by Robert Rossen. Among other populist politicians were Senator Joseph McCarthy, who led "McCarthyism" in the 1950s, and George Wallace, who was inaugurated as the governor of Alabama in the 1960s, proclaiming "Segregation Now, Segregation Tomorrow, Segregation Forever." Probably we can add here the name of American business magnate Henry Ross Perot, who frequently ran for President in the 1990s, calling for fiscal austerity, opposition to gun control, and protectionist trade. Likewise, Patrick Buchanan could appear in the roster.
However, none of them could win the presidency. Trump has made it happen. Let us consider the background of the emergence of President Trump.
First, there is an isolationist tendency in American society. Trump's brand of "America first" is originally a slogan and an organization name used by interwar isolationists such as Charles Lindbergh. The plain word "pacifism" that expresses the public's aversion to war is said to be an invention from those days. But isolationism helped the rise of the Nazis, and pacifism could not prevent war. With this regret in mind, the post-WWII United States took up the role as the world leader. In the 1970s, the United States suffered a significant reverse in the Vietnam War and was in economic terms overtaken by Japan and Europe. President Richard Nixon tried to reduce the burden of the United States through détente with the Soviet Union and access to China. President Reagan also advocated a "strong America" and dismissed isolationism.
The United States survived as the only superpower after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The nation expanded the "war on terrorism" following the simultaneous terrorist attacks on the US mainland on September 11, 2001, and experienced a large-scale and long-term war in Afghanistan and Iraq. The period from the Fall of the Berlin Wall (November 9, 1989) to the 9.11 attacks and that from the Gulf War to the Iraq War were two interwar periods during which the United States failed in diplomatic actions and in the creation of a new international order. 8 As a result, the isolationist tendency saw a revival.
Next we see the decline theory. There is some overlap between isolationism and the decline theory, but they are not the same thing. For example, the United States of the 1920s was isolationist but full of vitality at home; consequently, the decline theory was alien to her. Although Americans discussed the decline theory in the 1970s and 1980s, Nixon and Reagan dismissed isolationism as mentioned above.
The war on terror exhausted the United States. The Lehman shock of 2008 caused all the more grave damage to the US economy. In the meantime, China quickly gained in power, surpassing Japan in 2010 to become the second-largest economy in the world. Almost 100 years have passed since the Xinhai Revolution (1911). Japan used to be an economic, and the former Soviet Union a military rival to the United States. But China is challenging the United States in both areas. Therefore, the decline theory is debated more seriously than ever by Americans alerted to the threat presented by China.
President Barak Obama was overwhelmed by economic policy measures and eventually said, "America will no longer be the world's policeman." Meanwhile, Trump advocates "Make America Great Again." It was initially the slogan favored by President Reagan. While Reagan defended the Vietnam War, Trump criticized the Iraq War and is much more isolationist. The fusion of isolationism and the decline theory in the United States lies behind the emergence of President Trump. To speak in the way Ian Bremmer does, it was an overture to "G-zero" (a world without international leaders, no pole). 9
With this fusion, the rapid change of society and the social divide interacted. The unrestricted flow of financial capital symbolized by the Lehman shock widened the gap between rich and poor in American society. It was made apparent by the neo-liberalism of the 1980s and further spurred on by globalization and technological innovation. Also, the spread of social media has propagated hatred, prejudice, and fake news against "others" who are not us.
As mentioned above, it was President Obama who had to address the economic crisis after the Lehman shock. The emergence of the first-ever black president --- an eloquent and intelligent elite supported by the "multicultural alliance" --- fueled the anger and racial prejudice of part of the white population suffering from disparities. The white population accounted for 80% of the US population in 1980 but for 60% today. The whites will lose their majority by the middle of this century. "Status politics" (dissatisfaction with expanding economic disparity and fear of the loss of status as the majority) and "identity politics" (anxiety about the diversification of ethnicity, religion, and gender) caused a chemical reaction. The former is related to the interests in the past and the latter to those in the future. Their vectors are diametrically opposite. At the international and national levels, the decline theory corresponds to "status politics" and isolationism to "identity politics."
President Trump appeared with a "Royal Straight Flush" that populists have never had.
We cannot attribute to him alone the various difficulties facing the United States in the 21st century. It was President Bush that caused isolationism by the "war on terror" and helped to widen disparity. Many elites were complicit in supporting his policies. Obama opposed the Iraq War, but could not respond to the subsequent rise of China. As a result, he spurred the decline theory and undoubtedly promoted identity politics more than was necessary. Democratic leaders, on the other hand, who were intelligent and elitist, overlooked the distrust and dissatisfaction of their traditional supporters such as trade unions and young people. Trump responded to their expectations for change.
Impact of the Trump-Corona Syndrome
Looking back at this point at the Trump administration, there are factors of instability such as the President's abusive language, scandals, the dismissal and resignation of a series of high-ranking officials, which would constitute a grave crisis for any ordinary administration. Fumiaki Kubo, a scholar of American studies, summarizes President Trump's principles of behavior as "three I's" --- impulse, ignorance, and intuition. 10
There are some reasons for President Trump's aggressive administration. First of all, there are his rock-bed supporters who reportedly account for a little less than 40% of the total voters. President Trump effectively worked on them with his favorite Twitter. Furthermore, the economic boom continued, and the unemployment rate was low. Since President Trump initiated no war, nobody died for him on the battlefield. It is a serious fact, however, that the number of veterans who killed themselves after their repatriation due to mental or economic distress is more than the fatalities in the battlefields of Afghanistan and Iraq. A still greater number of war veterans fell prey to alcohol and drug addiction, even if they did not commit suicide.
The corona pandemic has blown away these stabilizing factors and highlighted Trump's "three I's." The world fell into a more severe recession than the Lehman shock; the US unemployment rate registered about 15% in April --- a record worst since 1929. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates US economic growth in 2020 at minus 6.6%. President Trump at the mercy of "three I's" slighted expert advice and scientific analysis; his misjudgment cost 130,000 "war dead." He is patently unqualified as a "war-time President." The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), boasting its contribution to the prevention of the spread of infectious diseases in developing countries, could not play a central role in controlling the corona pandemic at home due to massive budget cuts and to the absence of leadership under the Trump administration. In sum, the United States under the Trump administration failed in the "global political stress test" --- the corona pandemic. 11
The resulting Trump-Corona Syndrome has strengthened the above-mentioned strongest combination that the present author dubbed as the "Royal Straight Flush." As is well known, blacks and Hispanics are generally poorer than whites, bearing the brunt of a higher number of infections, deaths, and unemployment. The racial confrontation became exacerbated when the BLM movement rose after the killing of a black man by a white police officer. The mobilization of the army by President Trump to stop disturbances in Washington worsened the situation. Furthermore, some famous historical figures were decried as racists, and their bronze statues were demolished. This move invited backlashes. "Identity politics" and "status politics" have become even more salient.
President Trump blatantly puts a high priority on his re-election, trying to capitalize on the current situation. An international political scientist, Akihiko Tanaka, explicitly asserts that "it is President Trump himself that constitutes a greater threat to American society than the triple crisis" of the novel coronavirus, depression, and racism. 12
At present, the re-election of President Trump will not be easy because Democratic candidate Joe Biden is dominant in many of the battleground states. Even among Trump's rock-bed supporters, the elderly who feel their lives threatened by the corona pandemic are breaking away as are evangelicals. The July 4-10 issue of The Economist predicts the possibility of Trump's election to be at 10%. 13 Although Biden has many disadvantages represented by his advanced age, he is likely to appoint a young black female as the vice presidential candidate and will be able to point to the cumulative blunders of President Trump. An increase in postal voting would work in favor of Biden. (Only five states send a postal ballot sheet to voters.) "Aiming at his re-election, President Trump has benefitted from constant media exposure and enjoys the ‘incumbent bonus' in appreciation of his achievements. However, once defensive, he successively betrays ineptitude and bears the ‘incumbent onus.'"14 The Democratic Party may dominate the majority in not only the House of Representatives but also in the Senate. Besides, the once-every-ten-years census will take place this year; we should keep a watchful eye on the elections of governors and legislatures that decide on the division of constituencies.
President Trump blames mainly China and the WHO for the spread of the corona pandemic. Ostensibly at least, the Trump administration has been harsh against China in terms of economy and security. Meanwhile, the current pandemic has aggravated American public sentiment against China. Regarding human rights issues associated with the Uyghurs and Hong Kong, Americans have a strong aversion to China. 15 In the meantime, President Trump officially decided to leave the WHO. International organizations are at the mercy of the dynamics among superpowers; China's influence over international organizations is remarkable. The US conservatives regard international organizations as "big governments" and dislike that American sovereignty is restricted by them. President Trump is attempting to leverage anti-Chinese sentiment and an isolationist mood among Americans to restore his approval ratings. The US withdrawal from the WHO, on the other hand, will make global cooperation difficult in the area of health and hygiene and will lead to the expansion of Chinese influence over the WHO. The corona pandemic has helped to intensify the sense of loss among Americans and to make the decline theory cogent. We have yet to see whether the United States can appropriately deal with China.
Beyond the "Twenty Years' Crisis"
China seems to have succeeded in controlling the spread of the corona pandemic by imposing a peremptory lockdown. But its international reputation was critically damaged by its hasty, high-handed diplomacy and provocative military action that followed. The other permanent member states of the UN Security Council and emerging powers such as India and Brazil also suffered enormous damage from the corona pandemic.
Undoubtedly, the United States is by far the biggest "corona loser." Will the aforementioned "Royal Straight Flush" ---- the combination of the decline theory, "status politics," isolationism, "identity politics" --- deprive the United States of its world leader status, or will the nation fight to deter the rise of China? Perhaps the latter will be the case. But can the United States maintain its will and strength? Unless the United States makes effective use of its allies, international organizations, and multilateral frameworks, for a long time it will be incapable of fighting China.
Around 2030, China's GDP will surpass that of the United States, and also for the scale of the defense budget for a single year, a US-China reversal is likely to occur. But China is already facing a decline in its productive population, while India will have outnumbered China in total population by 2030. According to "Made in China 2025," China plans to make up for its population decrease with technological innovations. Meanwhile, the continuing influx of more immigrants will increase the US population to 350 million. By the 100th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China in 2049, China will have lost 200 million productive people as compared with 2015. Looking around the world, environmental destruction, resource depletion, and disparity between rich and poor will become more serious. Until then, the US population will grow to almost 400 million, but whites will lose their majority status.
Two decades between 2030 and 2050 are called the Twenty Years' Crisis in the 21st century. China will remain the strongest but will face vulnerabilities. American society will have to overcome "identity politics" and "status politics." During this period, Japan will have to endeavor to maintain and strengthen international cooperation and norms while preserving its vitality. Facing a rapid decline in population, Japanese society will also change (ex. 10% of its population will be foreigners in 2060). If the United States is exhausted by the corona pandemic and China takes quicker action, this "Twenty Years' Crisis" may be moved forward and assume the aspect of a "30-year war in the 21st century." The Taiwan issue may provide an ignition point.
By around 2030, unmanned military operations and remote control technologies will further advance. 16 Which of the United States or China will win such a war technology race and how the Japan-US alliance can respond to a crisis will determine the location of the "Twenty Years' Crisis." The Japan Self-Defense Forces are also required to carry out an audacious "reform of the way of fighting."17 Besides, Japan should actively call for strategic dialogues between Japan and the United States, given the decision to discontinue the deployment of Aegis Ashore in Japan.
A military clash between the United States and China would be a nightmare for the world. It is, therefore, a goal beyond the "Twenty Years' Crisis" to not so much defeat China as to urge China to behave as a "responsible stakeholder." To this end, the United States must first of all prove once again to the world that she is a "responsible stakeholder" --- and that Churchill's insight is correct. Japan, always accompanying the United States, must make it known that she is also a "responsible stakeholder." It may sound like a weak conclusion, but the present author would like to believe Masataka Kosaka's words, "In politics and diplomacy, anachronists build the order."18
(This paper was translated into English by the SSDP Secretariat.)
- September, 2023, " A Medium- to Long-Term Outlook for the US Economy―Can America Win the Competition with China?―" by Tatsuhiko Yoshizaki, Chief Economist, Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd.
- September, 2023, " China's Strategy toward the U.S " by Toshiya Tsugami, Adjunct Researcher, the Japan Institute of International Affairs
- September, 2023, " The Deepening Security Dilemma in US-China Relations " by Ryo Sahashi, Associate Professor, the University of Tokyo
- July, 2023, "How Would North Korea and China Use Nuclear Weapons? -- Scenarios for Discussion" by Narushige Michishita, Professor at the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- July, 2023, "Japan's Nuclear Strategy" by Nobukatsu Kanehara, Visiting Professor at Doshisha University
- July, 2023, "G7 Hiroshima Summit and Efforts for a Safer World Without Nuclear Weapons" by Nobushige Takamizawa, Visiting Professor at the University of Tokyo
- July, 2023, "Roundtable Discussion—Let's Talk Frankly About Nuclear Issues" by SSDP Discussion Members
- June, 2023, "Exploring the Possibility of Nuclear Attacks on Japan－Nuclear Simulations in the Era of "Three-Front Nuclear Threats" by Hiroyasu Akutsu, Professor, Heisei International University
- June, 2023, "China's Aim to Become a Nuclear Superpower" by Masafumi Iida, Head of China Division at the National Institute for Defense Studies
- June, 2023, "Challenges for Nuclear Arms Control in the Era of Strategic Competition Among Major Powers" by Nobumasa Akiyama, Professor, Hitotsubashi University
- June, 2023, "Mechanisms and Functions of Nuclear Deterrence－Development of US Nuclear Strategic Theory" by Masashi Murano, Research Fellow of Hudson Institute
- April 2023, "Changing NATO's "Achilles Heel"—Security in the Baltic Region" by Sanshiro Hosaka, Fellow,The International Centre for Defence and Security, Estonia
- April 2023, Evolution of European Security System - Visualization of Deterrence by NATO and the "Russian Problem" by Michito Tsuruoka, Associate Professor, Keio University
- April 2023, "An Expanded NATO's Nuclear Strategy" by Yoko Iwama
- March, 2023, "Germany's Civilian Power Model—Modification or Termination?--Germany Struggling with the War in Ukraine" by Toshiya Nakamura, Professor, Nagoya University
- March, 2023, "France and the Ukraine War―The Logic Behind Macron's Security Policy" by Ken Endo, Professor, The University of Tokyo
- March, 2023, "The Russo-Ukrainian War and the British Response: 2014-2023" by Yuichi Hosoya, Professor, Keio University
- March, 2023, "Where is America Heading—Implications and Challenges for the Allies" by Koji Murata, Professor, Doshisha University
December 2022, Proposal "Defending Our Country – Defense Policy in a New Cold War Era" was announced
- Front Cover
- Changes in the Security Environment Surrounding Japan - Shifting Power Balance and the Three Front Threats Ken Jimbo
- How Will "Japan Contingencies" Emerge? Osamu Onoda
- The Japan-US Alliance Revisited: Is it Dependable? Chikako Kawakatsu Ueki
- A New Phase of Defense Diplomacy and Defense Production and Technology Base Ippeita Nishida, Tsuneo Watanabe
- Intelligence Activities in the Post-Ukraine War Era Jun Nagashima
- Responding to the Nuclear Threat Masashi Murano
- No Time to Lose for Improving Japan's Defense Capabilities - Can the JSDF Defend the Homeland? - Ryoichi Oriki
- Toward the Formulation of a New "National Security Strategy" Hideshi Tokuchi
- October 2022, "Japan-China Relations under the Long-term Administration of Xi Jinping: Current Status, Prospects, and Expectations" written by Kazuyuki Suwa, Professor, University of Shizuoka
- October 2022, "China's Policy on the Global South --- China's World View and the Configuration of the US-China Confrontation " written by Shin Kawashima, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- October 2022, "Military Strategy of Xi Jinping's China" written by Bonji Ohara, Senior Fellow, Sasagawa Peace Foundation
- September 2022, " Social Governance by the Communist Party of China: The Present State and the Future Prospects " written by Kazuko Kojima, Professor, Keio University
- September 2022, "The Relationship between Domestic Politics and Diplomacy under the Xi Jinping Administration- Why Were the Large-Scale Military Exercises Decided?" written by Chisako T. Masuo, Professor, Kyushu University
- September 2022, "Xi Jinping's China--- Prospects for Its Climate Change Policy ---" written by Takashi Sekiyama, Associate Professor, The University of Kyoto
- August 2022, " Current Assessment of the Xi Jinping's Rule and Prospects for the Third Term of the Xi Administration " written by Takashi Suzuki, Associate Professor, Aichi Prefectural University
- August 2022, " Economic Challenges Awaiting the Xi Jinping Administration As it Enters its Third Term" written by Toshiya Tsugami, Director, Tsugami Toshiya's Works
- July 2022, "The Russian Invasion of Ukraine and the Future International Legal Order" written by Masahiro Kurosaki, Associate Professor, National Defense Academy
- July 2022, "The Ukraine War and Security in East Asia" written by Narushige Michishita, Vice President, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- July 2022, "How Will the Ukraine War Change the New US-China Cold War?" written by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- July 2022, "Impact of the Ukraine War on the Global Economy" written by Tatsuhiko Yoshizaki, Chief Economist, Sojitz Research Institute, Ltd.
- June 2022, "Why War Occurs in Europe?--The Structural Transformation of the European Security Order in the Post-Cold War Era --" written by Yuichi Hosoya, Professor, Keio University
- June 2022,"The Russia-Ukrainian War and the Behind-the-Scenes Stance of the United States" "On Economic Security" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- June 2022, "The Russia-Ukraine War and NATO", written by Michito Tsuruoka, Associate Professor, Keio University
- June 2022, "The Ukrainian War Viewed from Theories of International Politics" written by Matake Kamiya, Professor, National Defens Academy
- March 2022, "Economic Security Challenges and Cyber Security" written by Jun Osawa, Senior Research Fellow, Nakasone Peace Institute
- March 2022, "On Economic Security" written by Matake Kamiya, Professor, the Ntional Defense Academy
- March 2022, ""Economic Security" and the Review of the 2013 NSS and the Related Strategy Documents" written by Nobushige Takamizawa, Visiting Professor, the University of Tokyo
- March 2022, "The US-China Rivalry and Economic Security" written by Yuzo Murayama, Professor, Doshisya University
- March 2022, "Japan's National Security Policies and Science and Technology" written by Nobukatsu Kanehara, Professor, Doshisya University
- March 2022, "Economic Security in the Free Trade Regime" written by Kazuto Suzuki, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- January 2022, "The 2022 South Korean Presidential Election and the Next Administration's Foreign and Security Policy" written by Junya Nishino, Professor, Keio University
- January 2022, "North Korea's Nuclear and Missile Development and Japan's Defense" written by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, GRIPS
- January 2022, "What will Become of Japan-South Korea Relations? The 1965 Japan-South Korea Treaty System in Jeopardy" written by Masao Okonogi, Professor Emeritus, Keio University
- December 2021, "Economic and Social Conditions in North Korea and its Relations with South Korea" written by Mitsuhiro Mimura, Chief Research Fellow, The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia.
- December 2021, "China's Korean Peninsula Policy and North Korea" written by Shin Kawashima, Professor, the University of Tokyo.
- December 2021, "China's Korean Peninsula Policy and North Korea" written by Shunji Hiraiwa, Professor, Nanzan University.
- December 2021, "What to Do with the Relations with North Korea?" written by Hitoshi Tanaka, Chairman for Institute for International Strategy at the Japan Research Institute.
- October 2021, "Strategic Implications of North Korea's Enhanced Nuclear and Missile Capabilities" written by Narushige Michishita, Vice President, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
- October 2021, "The Biden Administration's North Korea Policy: Its Low Priority and Looming Crises" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation.
- October 2021, "The Evolution of the US-ROK Alliance: Tasks in the Biden Era" written by Yasuyo Sakata, Professor, Kanda University of International Studies.
- September 2021, "The Development of Regional Security Architecture: From Asia-Pacific to Indo-Pacific" written by Ken Jimbo, Professor, Keio University.
- September 2021, "The Strategic Development of Japanese Security Cooperation under Superpower Competition and the Development of the FOIP and its Operationalization" written by Nobushige Takamizawa, Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Public Policy, The University of Tokyo.
- August 2021, "Security Perceptions of Central Asian Countries--- From the Perspective of China Studies ---" written by Shin Kawashima, Professor, the University of Tokyo.
- August 2021, "Security in the Indian Ocean Region---Implication of the Galwan Incident for QUAD in the Indo-Pacific" written by Dr. Satoru Nagao, Fellow (Non-Resident), Hudson Institute.
- August 2021, "Easternization and Security in Asia" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation.
- July 2021, "The Ideas of "Autonomy" and "Self-Reliance" in Contemporary India's Foreign Strategy" written by Kazutoshi TAMARI, Associate Professor,Chukyo University.
- July 2021, "Thailand's Security Policies and Threat Perceptions" written by Saya Kiba, Associate Professor, Komatsu University, Faculty of Intercultural Communication.
- July 2021, "Myanmar's Security Perceptions and the February 1 Coup d'Etat" written by Yoshihiro Nakanishi, Associate Professor, Kyoto University.
- July 2021, "Australia's Security Perceptions and the "Asia Threat"" written byTomohiko Satake, Senior Fellow, Defense Policy Division, Policy Studies Department, NIDS .
- June 2021, "The Indo-Pacific Regional Architecture: Its Future--- Multipolar Order Beyond US-China Relations ---" by Tsutomu Kikuchi, Professor, Aoyama Gakuin University
- June 2021, "The Quad Plus in the Security of Asia: Its Significance and Outlook" by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- June 2021, "Indonesian Views and Perceptions on National Security" by Nobuhiro Aizawa, Associate Professor, The Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies, Kyushu University
- June 2021, "Normalized Tensions in the Cross-Strait Relations--- Structural Changes in Taiwanese Society and the Xi Jinping Administration's Strategic Shift ---" by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Professor, The University of Tokyo
- June 2021, "China's Maritime Strategy and Responses of the United States and Japan" by Yoji Koda, Former Commander in Chief, Self Defense Fleet
- June 2021, "The South China Issues from the Perspective of the International Law Order",by Shigeki Sakamoto, Emeritus Professor, Kobe University
- May 2021, "Indonesian Views and Perceptions on National Security" by Nobuhiro Aizawa, Associate Professor, Kyushu University
- May, 2021, "The Philippine Foreign and Security Policy Perspective" written by Yusuke Takagi Associate Professor,National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
- May, 2021, "Vietnam's Security: Challenges and Responses" written by Tomotaka Shoji Head, Asia and Africa Division, Regional Studies Department, National Institute for Defense Studies
- March, 2021, "Can the Biden Administration Restore America as a Global Leader?" written by Matake Kamiya, Professor, the National Defense Academy of Japan.
- March, 2021, "The Biden Administration and Japan's Security Strategy" written by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
- February,2021, "US Foreign and Security Policy Direction Viewed from the Biden Administration's Lineup" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- February,2021, "Trade Policies of the Biden Administration" written by Takaaki Asano, Senior Analyst, Sumitomo Corporation Global Research Co. Ltd.
- February,2021, "The Biden Administration's Policy toward Russia" written by Taisuke Abiru, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January,2021, "Will US Policy Toward China Change?" lectured by Ryo Sahashi, Associate Professor, the University of Tokyo
- January,2021, "How will China View the Biden Administration?" written by Bonji Ohara, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January,2021, "An Assessment of the 2020 US Presidential Election－American Democracy Now－" lectured by Fumiaki Kubo, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- January,2021, "Two Trumpian Mysteries－Why did Trump win over 70 million votes? Why is his outrageous behavior unchecked?－" lectured by Kazuhiro Maeshima, Professor, Sophia University
- September, 2020, "The Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic and Internationa Relationsl" by Matake Kamiya, Professor, National Defense Academy of Japan
- September, 2020, "The Policy Agenda for the Xi Jinping Administration- COVID-19 Countermeasures and China's International Relations -" by Shin Kawashima, Professor, The University of Tokyo
- "Control in the United States and International Relations" by Koji Murata, Professor, Doshisha University
- September, 2020, "The EU's Response to COVID-19 and International Relations" by Yuichi Hosoya, Professor, Keio University
- August, 2020, "The Corona Crisis Seen from a Macroeconomic Perspective" written by Motoshige Itoh, Professor Emeritus, The University of Tokyo
- August, 2020, "The Coronavirus Pandemic and Japan's Infectious Disease Control" written by Takashi Mihara, Senior Research Fellow, NLI Research Institute
- August, 2020, "Infectious Disease Crisis Control in Japan- Recommendations on an Exit Strategy -" written by Kazumasa Oguro, Professor, Hosei University
- August, 2020, "Security against Infectious Disease Threats --- Policy Responses Abroad" written by Takashi Sekiyama, Associate Professor, Kyoto University
- June 2020,"Transformation of the International Order in the Middle East--- Varying Degrees of "Stateness" and Three Directions of the New Order" written by Satoshi Ikeuchi, Professor, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo
- June 2020,"Destabilization in the Middle East and its Impacts on Japan's Energy Security" written by Amane Kobayashi, Research Fellow, The Institute of Energy Economics
- May 2020: Urgent Recommendations "Toward a V-shaped Recovery after the Novel Coronavirus Pandemic "Coronavirus Testing for All" --- the First Step of the Next Phase"
- May 2020: "US Diplomacy toward Iran: Economic Sanctions as a Diplomatic Tool" Hiroki Sugita Columnist, Kyodo News
- "Russian Factors in the Middle East" Taisuke Abiru Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- "The SDF Dispatches to the Middle East --- History and Significance" Ippeita Nishida Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- March 2020, "Space and Security" Kazuto Suzuki Professor, Hokkaido University
- March 2020, "The US Security Space Policy --- With a Focus on the Establishment of Two Space Forces" Yasuhito Fukushima Chief Researcher, The National Institute for Defense Studies
- March 2020, "China's Recent Activities in Space and Cyberspace" Bonji Ohara Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- March 2020, "Environmental Security and Japan" Takashi Sekiyama Associate Professor, Kyoto University
- March 2020, "Changes in Global Environment and Security --- US Security Strategy" Hideshi Tokuchi Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS)
- February 2020, "Cyberspace Security" Motohiro Tsuchiya Professor, Keio University
- February 2020, "Japan's Space and Cyberspace Policy" Yukinari Hirose Former President of the National Institute for Defense Studies
- December 2019, "The US-China Confrontation --- Where Will Hegemony Reside Next?" Akio Takahara Professor, the University of Tokyo
- December 2019, "Challenges Facing the Chinese Economy" Osamu Tanaka Chief Senior Researcher, Institute of Developing Economies, JETRO
- December 2019, "US Strategic Perception on China: Implications for US Allied Partners" Tsuneo Watanabe Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- November 2019, "The Xi Jinping Administration's View of the International Order– China's emphasis on United Nations diplomacy and liberal economic policies−" Shin Kawashima, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- November 2019, "The Future of China's Security Strategy" Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- November 2019, "China --- Its Confidence and Anxiety" Bonji Ohara, Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- August 2019: Several Perspectives on the Korean Peninsula Issue--- The Deteriorating Japan-South Korea Relationship and the Uncertain Denuclearization of North Korea --- By Masahiro Akiyama Chairman, the SSDP
- July 2019, "An Outlook on the Denuclearization of North Korea--- What is the Stance of North Korea?---", Junya Nishino, Professor, Keio University
- July 2019, "An Outlook on the Denuclearization of North Korea --- How will the US move?", Narushige Michishita, Vice President, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- July 2019, "Discussion on Denuclearization of North Korea", SSDP Discussion Meeting on May 8, 2019
- May 2019: "Current Status and Prospects of South Korea and Japan's Frictions over History: How to address the Judicial Problems", Masao Okonogi, Professor Emeritus, Keio University
- May 2019: "South Korea and Japan's Frictions over History" (Comments), Junya Nishino, Professor, Keio University
- May 2019: Japan and South Korea Relationships (Question & Answer)
- March 2019: "The Present State and Prospects of the Indian Economy and Economic Policies" written by Koji Kobayashi, Senior Economist Mizuho Research Institute Ltd.
- March 2019: "The "Modi diplomacy" in the History of Indian diplomacy--- Departure from or maintenance of the traditional diplomacy? ---" written by Toru Ito, The National Defense Academy of Japan
- February 2019: Dynamics of Indian Politics and the 2019 General Elections, written by Chiharu Takenaka, Professor of Rikkyo University
- February 2019: "Cooperative Strategy" to Realize "Competitive Strategy"--- The composite structure of Japan's "Free and Open Indo-Pacific" strategy (vision) ---, written by Matake Kamiya, Professor at The National Defense Academy of Japan
- January 2019:, A paper, "How will the US midterm elections results affect the Trump administration's foreign policy for 2019?" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, the Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January 2019:, A paper, "The Present and Future of the International Trade Order" , written by Akihiko Tamura, Professor, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- December 2018: The US-China Competition and Japan, written by Ryo Sahashi, Professor at Kanagawa University
- December 2018: An Outlook for the US-China Trade War―What makes the two economically interdependent superpowers confront each other?―, written by Takashi Sekiyama, Associate professor at Toyo University
- September 2018: Proposal, "The Denuclearization of North Korea and the Restoration of Peace in the Korean Peninsula― Correct Perceptions and Eight Proposals on Japan's North Korea Diplomacy－" edited by the Society of Security and Diplomatic Policy Studies
- September 2018: "The Taiwan Policy of the Xi Jinping Administration in its Second Term: An Outlook on Cross-Strait Relations in the New Era" written by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Professor of the Tokyo University
- July 2018: "The EU States and Russia on North Korea Issues- Expansion of Influence through Diplomacy: Attempts and Limitations -" lectured by Yuichi Hosoya, Professor of Keio University
- "An Assessment of the US-North Korea Summit and an Outlook for the Future of the Korean Peninsula" lectured by Junya Nishino, Professor of Keio University
- "Korean Peninsula Issue and Japan's Future Security Policy" written by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow of National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- July 2018: "US North Korea policy affected by personnel changes in the Trump administration" lectured by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation.
- "China-North Korea relationship under Xi Jinping" lectured by Shin Kawashima, Professor of the Tokyo University.
- "North Korean Denuclearization and Russia" lectured by Nobuo Shimotomai, Professor of the Hosei University.
- March 2018: "The Network Hegemony Theory for a Security Architecture in The Asia Pacific Region" lectured by Masahiro Akiyama, Chairman, the Society of Security and Diplomatic Policy Studies
- January 2018: "A Destabilized Middle East" lectured by Koichiro Tanaka, Professor, Keio University
- December 2017: "Problems in Sino-Japanese Relations, 1992-2042" lectured by Ezra F. Vogel, Professor of the Social Sciences Emeritus at Harvard University
- November 2017: "The Future of the Asia-Pacific Region" written by Yoriko Kawaguchi, Fellow, the Meiji Institute for Global Affairs, Former Minister Foreign Affairs
- October 2017: "A New Trend in India's Foreign Policy and Japan" Written by HIROSE,Takako, Professor, Senshu University
- August 2017: "The Shocks that shook the Transatlantic World and their Implication for Japan's Foreign Policy" written by HOSOYA, Yuichi, Professor, Keio University
- August 2017: "Does Economic Interdependence not Encourage Collaboration? ―Thinking Japan-China Relations from an Economic Perspective―" written by Takashi SEKIYAMA, Ph.D., Toyo University
- July 2017: Proposal article "The Trump Administration's Impact on the Cross-Strait Relations" written by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Ph.D.
- June 2017: Proposal article "The outlook for the relationship between two great powers and implications for Japanese diplomacy" written by Professor Shin Kawashima
- May 2017: (Emergency Proposal) Facing the Inconvenient Truth: Re-examining Policy for Peace and Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula (Chief author, Masao Okonogi)
- March 2017: "Economic Influences of the Trump Administration" written by Professor Motoshige Ito
- February, 2017: Proposal article "Trump's Foreign and Security Policy - Unpredictable President, Realistic Secretaries - " written by Mr. Tsuneo Watanabe is posted on the website of SSDP.
- December, 2016: Proposal article "Reconsidering North Korea Policy: How to Deal with a Nuclear Armed Divided States" written by Professor Masao Okonogi is posted on the website of SSDP.
- Taiwan-Japan Round Table on August 24th, at Capital Tokyu Hotel
- Japan-Korea Political Leaders Dialogue was held on February 10th,2023 at International House of Japan
- March 2022, A remembrance seminar "Remembering Professor Ezra Vogel" held on January 17, 2022
- March 2021, Japan-ROK Parliamentary Dialogue -Japan-ROK Cooperation in the Era of US-China Competition- held on March 11, 2021
- December 2020: The report of the Japan-ROK Future Dialogue held on November 21 to discuss "Japan-ROK Cooperation in the Post-Covid-19 Era
- October 2020: "Responses to COVID-19 and Agendas for the Post-COVID-19 Era", A Brief Overview of the Japan-Korea Experts Dialogue held on July 29,30, 2020
- October 2020: "The China-Taiwan Confrontation over Corona Response and Taiwan's Security" written by Makoto Ogata, Former Chief of the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association in Taipei
- May 2020: "Rivalries in the Middle East in New Security Dynamics", Written by Sayed Ghoneim, Major General (retired) of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Chairman, Institute for Global Security & Defence Affairs
- March 2020: The Japan-South Korea Relationship in a Cul-de-Sac--- Where is an Exit ? Masao Okonogi Professor Emeritus, Keio Universit
- December 2019: The Hong Kong Upheaval and the Future of Cross-Straits Relations－The 2019 Japan-Taiwan Strategic Dialogue Report OGATA, Makoto Former Chief of the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association in Taipei
- August 2019: Report; 2019 FUTURE CONSENSUS DIALOGUE --Sustainable Prosperity and Future of Korea-U.S.-Japan Cooperation-- By Future Consensus Institute (Yeosijae)
- June 2019: Report on India – Japan Security Dialogue 2019 by Ms. Vindu Mai Chotani, Ph.D Student, The University of Tokyo
June 2019: Four papers on Japan-India Cooperation submitted to India-Japan Security Dialogue 2019
Japan's Rationale for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision
Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, The Sasakawa Peace Foundation
The Significance and Possibilities of India-Japan Cooperation in the Concept of the Indo-Pacific
Toru ITO Associate Professor, National Defense Academy of Japan
Japan-India Defense Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific Context - Operationalizing the Security Aspect of the Indo-Pacific Vision –
Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS)
India-US-Japan Defense Cooperation: What's next?
Dr. Satoru Nagao, Hudson Institute
- Japan's Rationale for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision
- November 2018: "The Present State of the Japanese Economy and Policy Issues" lectured by Motoshige Itoh, Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo.
- November 2018: "Expanding Social Security Expenses and Fiscal Reforms" lectured by Kazumasa Oguro, Professor at Hosei University.
- September 2018: "Taiwan Identity and Cross-Strait Relations and Trump's Taiwan Policy and the Future of Taiwan-US Relations-Discussion at The Second Japan-Taiwan Strategic Dialogue (June 21, 2018, Taipei)-" written by OGATA, Makoto
- September 2018: "Japan-Taiwan Dialogue 2018 Minutes", 21st June 2018, Taipei, Taiwan.
- July 2018: Report on The Second Japan – Philippines Strategic Dialogue prepared by Ms. Vindu Mai Chotani, Ph.D. Student, Graduate School of Public Policy, Tokyo University.
- May 2018: "Civilian Control "at Crisis"? – Perhaps Not, for the Case of the Field Sit-reps from SDF's South Sudan Mission" reported by Ippeita Nishida, Research Fellow, the Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January 2018: "Fukushima, Genki？Project－Young Taiwanese volunteers introduce the facts on Fukushima's revival through documentary films－" reported by OGATA, Makoto, Former Chief of the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association in Taipei
- December 2017: "Commemorating a Quarter Century of Dispatches of the JSDF's PKO Units: Challenges and Possibilities in the Post South Sudan" written by Takayuki Shoji, Lecturer, Nihon University
- November 2017: "19th CCP National Congress" written by Mr. Bonji Ohara, Senior Research Fellow, the Sasakawa Peace Fondation
- October 2017: "What is Japan's Role in the Indo-China border conflict?" written by Dr. NGAO,Satoru, Research Fellow, Institute for Future Engineering
- July 2017: "Overview of the Current Situation in Taiwan-" the Naturally Independent Generation" will affect the Taiwan"s politics-" written by Makoto Ogata MGE.(Ret.)
- June 2017: "Japan-U.S. Economic Dialogue" written by Mr.Takaaki Asano
- March 2017: "The Japan-Philippines Strategic Dialogue" written by Mr. Hideshi Tokuchi
- February, 2017: Current topic "The Importance of Japan's Security Role Under Trump" written by Dr. Satoru Nagao is posted on the SSDP website.
- December, 2016: Current topic "Widening Security Task: Will SDF do the Job?" written by Mr. Ippeita Nishida is posted on the SSDP website.
- June 2023,Research journal "Security Studies vol5 no2" (Nuclear Crisis Scenarios Facing Japan and the Outlook of Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control and Disarmament) in English edition was published.
- March 2023,Research journal "Security Studies vol5 no1" (What Will Happen to European Security?―Facing the War in Ukraine) in English edition was published.
- January 2023, Research Jounal "Security Studies (vol 4 no 4)" - Defending Our Country – Defense Policy in a "New Cold War Era - was published.
- October 2022, Research Jounal "Security Studies (vol 4 no 3)" - Xi Jinping's China - Politics, Economy, Society and Diplomacy - was published.
- Jun 2022, Research Jounal "Security Studies (vol 4 no 2)" -The Russia-Ukraine War and Its Global Impact- was published.
- March 2022, Research Jounal "Security Studies (vol 4 no 1)"-What is Economic Security?- was published.
- December 2021, Research Jounal "Security Studies (vol 3 no 4)"-Korean Peninsula Situation- was published.
- September 2021, A research journal "Security Studies vol03 no03" -Asia's Security II- (English edition)
- June 2021, A research journal "Security Studies vol03 no02" -Asia's Security I- (English edition)
- March 2021: Research journal "Security Studies (vol3 no1) "- US Foreign Policy in the Biden Administration / The 2020 US Presidential Election and American Democracy -(English edition)
- December 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no4) "- Normalize Japan-South Korea Relations trough Dialogues -(English edition)
- September 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no3) "-The Novel Coronavirus and Security-(English edition)
- July 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no2) - Middle East Situation and Japan's Security - " (English edition) was published
- May 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no1) - Cyber, Space, Environment and Security - " March 2020 (English edition)
- February 2020, "A research journal "Security Studies (vol1 no4) " (English edition)"
- September 2019: A research journal "Security Studies (vol1 no3) " (English edition)
- August 2019: Korea-Japan Joint Seminar: FUTURE CONSENSUS DIALOGUE
- April 2019: "Security Studies (vol1 no2) April 2019"
- March 2019: A research journal "Security Studies vol1 no01" just published
- February 2019: The Denuclearization of North Korea and the Takeshima Issue
- December 2018: Former Vice Defense Minister Masahiro Akiyama's Memoirs (An Ad)
- November 2018: Participation in the Future Consensus Forum held in Beijing
- September 2018: "2018 Indo-Pacific Security Dialogue" reported by Masahiro Akiyama
- 2017 December: "The Butterfly Project-A possibility of showing a solution to the North Korea problem-"
- October 2017: Campaign on the problems with North Korea
- August 2017: A New Containment Policy Strategy
- June 2017: Korean peninsla
- March 2017: President Duterte
- February, 2017: Kazakhstan
- November, 2016: Participated in Astana Club 2016 held in Kazakhstan on November 14- 16, 2016.