Security in Cyberspace
Professor, Keio University
Generally speaking, cybersecurity consists of three main parts. First, defense called Computer Network Defense (CND); second, attack called Computer Network Attack (CNA); and third, operation called Computer Network Exploitation (CNE). "Exploitation," represented by "E" of the acronym CNE, originally means "selfish use and wealth extraction," or, in the context of cybersecurity, the use of hardware and software in a way different from the original intention. In this sense, it is operation.
Most of the "cyberattacks" taken up by the mass media do not correspond to "attacks" in international law. Most of them are a kind of harassment, cybercrime, or cyber espionage (spying activity), with few cases of attack and defense defined by the Law of Armed Conflict. They are gray zones cases categorized as CNE. A former US government high-rank official states that "CNE is a necessary tool for any state."1
Security in cyberspace differs from conventional weapons security in that the border between attack and defense is not definite, and large gray zones spread between attack and defense. This paper will begin with a review of the pre-history of cybersecurity where cybersecurity was not recognized as a significant security issue; review the five types of cyberattacks since the 2010s; and lastly discuss the goals of the latest National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG) for FY 2019 and beyond worked out by the Japanese government.
2. Pre-History of Cybersecurity
From 1981 to 1982, there was a spy called Vladimir Vetrov (codename: "Farewell"), who provided the French government with information about the Soviet Union. The French government shared Vetrov's information with the US government, and discovered a list of what the Soviet Union wanted to acquire from the West. Gus W. Weiss who served on the US National Security Council (NSC) succeeded in having a gas pipeline control software intentionally stolen by the Soviets through a Canadian corporation. Soviet use of the doctored software caused a large explosion in a Siberian gas pipeline.2 This is probably the first case of kinetic destruction by cyberattack.
Shortly thereafter, in 1983, the motion picture "War Games" was released in the United States. President Ronald Reagan watched it, and asked the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, "Could something like this really happen?" He answered, "Mr. President, the problem is much worse than you think." As a result, the Reagan administration created a document numbered NSDD-145 and formulated the first cybersecurity policy measures.3
Following the Gulf Crisis in 1990, the Gulf War broke out in 1991. The US military demonstrated overwhelming strength through the seizure of air control and the ensuing introduction of ground forces. The heroes at the battleground were Commander of US Central Command Norman Schwarzkopf and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell. But the unsung heroes were William Studeman, Director of the National Security Agency (NSA) and Mike McConnell who headed the Integrated Intelligence Center created by Studeman. Analysts under McConnell sneaked into the nucleus of the command and control networks supervised by Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. They discovered that there were optical fiber networks running from the Iraqi capital, Baghdad, to Basra, a city near Kuwait, and that the Iraqi army was using them as command and control networks. The US military destroyed connecting points of the optical fiber networks. The Iraqi army immediately switched to a wireless system, but their radio signals leaked. The NSA, anticipating this, captured the weak leaking signals by using satellites, and saw the movement of the Iraqi army, thereby fighting the war with an advantage. The Iraqi army stopped using wireless communication and switched to motorcycle message delivery! Iraq lost the war as a natural consequence. What mattered most in this war was brain supremacy rather than air supremacy. The war is rated as the first anti-command and control warfare or a precursor to a future cyber war.4
In February 1998, an illegal online intrusion was detected at the Andrews Air Force Base in the United States. The base is where the Air Force One and Marine One airplanes take off and land. The incident was named Solar Sunrise. The US side commenced tracking the attackers and succeeded in tracking them down to the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since it was a time when the memories of the 1991 Gulf War were still vivid, Iraq was suspected to have perpetrated the intrusion. However, the culprits turned out to be two Californian teenagers encouraged by Israelis.
The following month, an intrusion dubbed Moonlight Maze took place, targeting the Wright-Patterson US Air Force Base. This also was thought to be mischief, but the attackers were tracked down to the Russian Academy of Sciences. In those days, an ostensibly close relationship had been established between US President Bill Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin, but to the consternation of many people, the truth was that Russia aimed at stealing classified information behind the scenes.
During the Clinton administration era, the boom of information and communication technology (IT) led to a buoyant economy, which was considered to be the advent of the "new economy" free from business cycles. However, the booming economy burst in July 2001, and the situation changed dramatically with the September 11 terrorist attacks by Al Qaeda against the US mainland.
In January 2003 when a war in Afghanistan was underway, and another war with Iraq was imminent, the proliferation of malicious software called the SQL Slammer worm took place at the Davis-Besse nuclear power plant in Ohio. The nuclear power plant came to a functional standstill. Although no serious damage occurred because the reactors had been shut down, it was discovered that the worm invaded the power plant through a subcontractor. This has helped change the perception that critical infrastructures are not vulnerable to computer viruses because they are ordinarily not connected to the Internet.
Around 2008, a US military personnel picked up a dropped USB flash drive in a US military base in the Middle East. The person connected it to a computer in the base, which caused malware infiltration of US military networks around the world. To cope with this, the US military launched the "Operation Backshot Yankee" to eliminate illegal access and to strengthen cybersecurity. As part of these efforts, the US Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) was established as a subordinate unified combatant command under the US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). Keith Alexander, director of the NSA, was concurrently appointed to the commander of USCYBERCOM.
3. Five Types of Cyberattacks
(1) DDoS: Distributed Denial of Service
In 2007, the news spread that a bronze statue in a park in the central part of the Estonian capital Tallinn would be relocated to somewhere else. Since the statue was commemorating Soviet soldiers in World War II, its relocation to a war dead cemetery in a suburban area invited the condemnation of Russian residents. As a result, a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack was delivered against financial institutions in Estonia. DDoS attack is a technique to crash a target web server or online system by overwhelming it with data sent from multiple malware-infected computers. Ordinarily, the owners of the infected computers are unaware that their computers are misapplied, while the targeted party cannot distinguish normal access from unauthorized access, eventually suffering malfunctions. Since Estonia had started to advance toward a cashless economy in those days, the malfunction of its financial services had a serious impact on Estonian society.
Russia was contextually suspected of being the mastermind of this attack, but the Russian government denied the allegation. Later a Russian non-governmental organization acknowledged its involvement. It is, however, still suspected that the attack had the support of the Russian government. Either way, the incident is considered to be significant in the sense that the whole country of Estonia was targeted.
After that, DDoS attacks have been delivered extensively in many countries to obstruct the business of financial institutions and government agencies. Since effective countermeasures are becoming available, DDoS attacks are unlikely to cause a catastrophic situation. Nonetheless, organizations without preparedness will not be able to avoid damages. Financial institutions that depend on high-frequency trading may incur business losses due to delays caused by DDoS attacks.
From this period onward, cybersecurity came to be acknowledged as one of the important security issues, and every country began to work on countermeasures.
(2) APT: Advanced Persistent Threat
Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) is sometimes found to be synonymous with targeted email attack, but it does not rely solely on email. Using "social engineering," APT infiltrates targeted systems of individuals and organizations by various tricks, thereby destroying systems, stealing data, and engaging in secret surveillance.
In Japan, attention to APT was heightened by a media report that in September 2011, 83 computers owned by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. were infected with a computer virus and information was stolen. Reportedly, no important confidential information was stolen, but the attack targeting Japan's largest defense corporation came as a shock.
The major perpetrator of the APT attacks is said to be China. There are abundant media reports on China's APT attacks. The US cybersecurity company FireEye has assigned different numbers to Chinese groups executing APT attacks; for example, APT1 is the PLA's 61398 Unit.5 APT10 is a Chinese group targeting civil engineering, aerospace, and telecommunications businesses, and government agencies in the United States, Europe and Japan.
At the US-China summit talk in California in June 2013, President Barack Obama demanded that China should stop cyber espionage, but Xi Jinping refuted the accusation and noted that China is a victim of cyber espionage. A few days before the summit, Edward Snowden appeared in the media and stated that he monitored the NSA's surveillance of communications, and that China was the target of this surveillance.
In 2015, the Japan Pension Service suffered cyberattacks, in which 1.24 million cases of pension information were stolen. Reportedly, not only the Japan Pension Service but also 1,000 organizations were targeted at that time. Because of its inadequate security, the Japan Pension Service happened to be attacked and pension information was stolen.
These APT attacks are continuously conducted by employing varying methods in various places. The extent of damages varies considerably, ranging from the theft of state or military secrets to that of personal information. In many cases, victims are not aware of unauthorized access or theft of information. APT attacks do not directly injure human life. Since, however, stolen military information could, for instance, affect the outcome of war, they are a potentially dangerous act.
(3) CCC: Combination of Cyber and Conventional Weapons
It was known to those concerned that cyberattacks could cause kinetic destruction, as seen in a Siberian pipeline explosion in the early 1980s. In 2007, the US Department of Homeland Security conducted a secret experiment named "Aurora Generator Test." The test was carried out to see what would happen to a ship generator, if its ventilation system was doctored to malfunction by adding 21 lines of code to a computer program connected to the generator. The generator failed in minutes and broke down, emitting black smoke. Disassembly after the experiment revealed that all generator components were affected. The US government has reconfirmed that cyberattacks could cause kinetic destruction.
In 2008, the Israeli government noticed that a North Korean type nuclear plant was under construction in the Syrian desert. Israel called on the United States to bomb the facilities. President George W. Bush rejected the request, because the United States was fighting wars in Afghanistan and Iraq at the same time. Later the nuclear plant was bombed. The Syrian government had no idea what happened. The truth is that Israel had, in advance, delivered cyberattacks on Syrian military radar networks and made them unserviceable. Then Israeli fighter jets flew over Syria and easily bombarded the target facilities.6 This is an example proving that a combination of cyberattacks and conventional weapons is quite an effective mode of attack.
Thus, attacks achieved by the combined use of cyber and conventional weapons can be called CCC (combination of cyber and conventional weapons). There are, however, few cases where actually conventional weapons were used in combination. The following three cases suggest that cyberattacks can be used advantageously to fight a war.
In 2010, an incident involving Iran's nuclear plant occurred, which is considered to be the most sophisticated cyberattack ever in history. The Iranian government had insisted that the nuclear facilities were used for peaceful purposes, but other countries were skeptical. Unidentified parties who wanted to prevent Iran's nuclear development while avoiding armed conflict with the country, launched cyberattacks on the plant in Natanz. The attacks were directed to centrifuge control devices, thus disabling about 1,000 centrifugal separators. Iran's nuclear development was delayed due to this attack. The New York Times later reported that it was a joint operation by Israel and the United States.7
Secondly, on December 23, 2015, cyberattacks were perpetrated against electricity supply networks in western Ukraine immediately before Christmas. Some 230,000 people were left helpless in utter darkness for one to six hours.8 In Ivano-Frankivsk, a town in western Ukraine, the average highest temperature in December is three degrees Celsius, while the average lowest minus five degrees Celsius. Fortunately, no residents froze to death. Meanwhile, the loss of social functions and disturbance created by a largescale blackout turned out to be very effective at an early stage of a military operation.
Thirdly, according to the New York Times, in 2014 the Obama administration ordered cyberattacks to check North Korea's missile launch, and this policy was taken over by the Donald Trump administration.9 It is unknown whether the US Cyber Command's cyberattacks actually functioned, but the success rate of North Korea's missile tests plunged for a certain period of time. But when the news came out, the operation was seemingly abandoned or lost its effectiveness. If an actual war broke out, cyberattacks on the opponent's weapon system would be mandatory. In most cases, preparations to that end may be undertaken prior to the war.
(4) SC: Supply Chain
The US Secretary of Defense annually submits reports to Congress on China's military and security developments. Its 2009 edition expressed concern that "Information technology companies, including Huawei, Datang, and Zhongxing,10 maintain close ties to the PLA and collaborate on R&D."11 Since then, Huawei has been under suspicion for over a decade.
When the Trump administration was inaugurated in January 2017, US trade deficits with China became a problem, and trade and technological frictions between the two countries became prominent. Huawei was made a scapegoat amidst the frictions.
In October 2018, Bloomberg Newsweek reported that a tiny chip was found in a server shipped by Elemental Technologies LLC, and that the users' data was suspected to have been illegally transmitted to third parties.12 The servers were delivered to Apple Inc. and Amazon Web Services, Inc. (AWS) The AWS is Amazon's cloud service, and its customers included the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the US Navy, and the Pentagon.
In December 2019, the Canadian government arrested Meng Wanzhou, Huawei's chief financial officer (CFO) and the daughter of the corporation's founder Ren Zhengfei at the request of the US Government. As of February 2020, Meng is awaiting further developments of the lawsuit --- with a GPS tracker around her ankle.
Huawei is suspected of its involvement in supply chain attacks --- the implantation of malicious programs into hardware and software. An unintentional error in a program is called a bug (defect, flaw), but the type of error that someone intentionally plants is called a supply chain attack.
There are two types of supply chain attacks. One of them is the implantation of malware into products at the manufacturing stage, potentially affecting all users of the infected products. Huawei is suspected of its involvement with this type of trick. The other is the implantation of malware in products taken out during delivery after shipment. For instance, at the request of some government agency, products are removed during delivery, planted with some information collection device, and then put again for delivery to the target.
Regarding the second type, a senior US government official said, "If there is a chance to do, you should do it 99 percent."14 Supply chain attacks against specific targets for diplomatic and security purposes fall under a grey zone category under international law. Rather, such intelligence activities may be a necessary evil, if they are executed to prevent war and terrorism.
The US government does not object to the Chinese government's intelligence activities within the United States for diplomatic and security purposes, because it also engages in such activities.
However, the first type of supply chain attack is made indiscriminately against civilians and private corporations, and is likely to be done for economic purposes or to infringe on the privacy of individuals. For this reason, the United States and China agreed that they should not resort to this kind of supply chain attack, and put the question on the agenda of US-China talks. At the US-China summit talk in September 2015 in Washington, DC, the two leaders agreed not to carry out such cyberattacks, but issued only an oral statement at a press conference and did not come up with any agreement on paper.
(5) IO: Influence Operation
Republican candidate Donald Trump won over Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the 2016 US presidential election. The US government later declared that they confirmed the Russian government's interference during the election. Groups suspected of being related to the Russian government hacked and exposed the email systems of the Democratic National Committee and of Clinton's officials, and published fake news on social media.
It is extremely difficult to verify or conclude whether Trump won the election thanks to this interference, and the US government has not yet made a judgement. The purpose of the cyberattacks is alleged to make American citizens skeptical about the results of the elections and, ultimately, the legitimacy of democracy itself.
This issue has been shaking US politics since the inauguration of the Trump administration in January 2017. In January 2020, President Trump was subjected to an impeachment trial, and was the third president in US political history to undergo an impeachment trial. He was ultimately acquitted in the Senate, but the trial demonstrates the US' political divide.
Russia also attempted to interfere with the November 2018 US midterm elections. Since the US government designates the electoral system as a critical infrastructure, the US Cyber Command can be mobilized to block foreign interference. On that occasion, the US Cyber Command prevented Russian meddling in the midterm elections by disrupting internet lines at the Internet Research Agency (IRA), which was believed to disseminate false news in Russia, and by frustrating the machinations of Russian operatives.
The US Department of Defense called this kind of strategy for preventing foreign interference a "defend forward" strategy. The Commander of the US Cyber Command, General Paul Nakasone, is trying to prevent through "persistent engagement" interference by Russia and other nations.
In January 2020, a presidential election was held in Taiwan. Until a year before the election, the incumbent President Tsai Ing-wen was expected to have little prospect of being re-elected, but the situation in Hong Kong helped her in the election. Also, before the election, President Tsai Ing-wen repeatedly warned about China's meddling in the presidential election, which alarmed the Taiwanese people. As a result, China did not meddle very much, and President Tsai Ing-wen overwhelmingly won over the Kuomintang candidate Han Kuo-yu. However, China is thought to be interfering with elections in Cambodia and elsewhere,15 and the possibility of China's interference with the US presidential election cannot be completely ruled out.
4. The New National Defense Program Guidelines (NDPG) and Cybersecurity
How ready is Japan to respond to this situation? The Japanese government's two principal organizations responsible for cybersecurity policy --- the Cybersecurity Strategic Headquarters (formerly the Information Security Policy Council) and the National center of Incident readiness and Strategy for Cybersecurity (NISC)16 ---issued Japan's "Cybersecurity Strategy" in 2013, 2015 and 2018, releasing the cybersecurity policy of the government as a whole.
In March 2014, the Ministry of Defense established the Cyber Defense Group under the SDF C4 (Command, Control, Communication & Computers) Systems Command under the direct control of the Minister of Defense. The Cyber Defense Group ordinarily defends the systems and networks of the Ministry of Defense and the SDF. Once a defense mobilization order is issued, the Group will be in charge of the overall cyber defense of Japan.17
In December 2018, the Cabinet approved a new National Defense Program Guidelines. The new NDPG's keyword is multi-dimensional integrated defense, which essentially aims to counteract cross-domain attack and multi-domain battle (MDB). (These operational concepts developed by the US military came to be called multi-domain operations for all phases including peacetime.)
The new NDPG states, "SDF will fundamentally strengthen its cyber defense capability, including capability to disrupt, during attack against Japan, opponent's access to cyberspace for the attack." If any attack (not limited to cyberattack) is conducted against Japan, the SDF will be able to prevent attackers or hostile countries from accessing cyberspace; that is, the SDF will then carry out cyberattacks as counterattacks.
Figure 1: Frequency of Technical Term Usage in the NDPG
Furthermore, "SDF will leverage its capabilities in all domains to conduct wide-area, persistent intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (hereinafter referred to as "persistent ISR") activities around Japan. SDF will prevent occurrence or escalation of emergencies by employing flexible deterrent options and other measures." If cyberspace is included in "all domains," measures to realize persistent ISR activities in cyberspace may have already been considered.
Although the new NDPG's keyword is "multi-dimensional" integrated defense, yet, as seen from Figure 1, the words "multi-dimension" or "dimension" appear only a few times in the text of the NDPGs. They contextually mean "domain." Official English translation of the keyword is "Multi-domain Defense Force." The new NDPG underlines the importance of increased efforts in three new domains: cyberspace, space, and the electromagnetic spectrum.
Events that predicted something that is very similar to cybersecurity of today took place as early as the 1980s during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. Since the 2010s, however, the appearance of five types of cyberattacks and multiple actors has added to the complexity of the situation.
Japan released the new NDPG in 2018 that highlights the establishment of multi-domain defense force. In parallel with efforts to that end, responses ahead of the time will be needed, as the situation evolves incessantly.
James Clapper, a former US Director of National Intelligence (DNI), said in his book, "At the Pentagon I'd often heard the military truism that every nation is preparing to refight its last war."18 For Japan, the last war is World War II. There crypto warfare was fought in those days, but what we now see in modern cyber warfare was hard to imagine. Recently, USADEN or a new Japanese acronym for space (uchu), cyber (saibah), and the electromagnetic spectrum (denjiha) seems to have some currency --- exclusively in Japan, of course. Improvement of defense capabilities in these new domains is now essential to our country.
(This paper was translated into English by Tsutomu Inuzuka, SSDP Associate)
- January 2022, "The 2022 South Korean Presidential Election and the Next Administration's Foreign and Security Policy" written by Junya Nishino, Professor, Keio University
- January 2022, "North Korea's Nuclear and Missile Development and Japan's Defense" written by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, GRIPS
- January 2022, "What will Become of Japan-South Korea Relations? The 1965 Japan-South Korea Treaty System in Jeopardy" written by Masao Okonogi, Professor Emeritus, Keio University
- December 2021, "Economic and Social Conditions in North Korea and its Relations with South Korea" written by Mitsuhiro Mimura, Chief Research Fellow, The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia.
- December 2021, "China's Korean Peninsula Policy and North Korea" written by Shin Kawashima, Professor, the University of Tokyo.
- December 2021, "China's Korean Peninsula Policy and North Korea" written by Shunji Hiraiwa, Professor, Nanzan University.
- December 2021, "What to Do with the Relations with North Korea?" written by Hitoshi Tanaka, Chairman for Institute for International Strategy at the Japan Research Institute.
- October 2021, "Strategic Implications of North Korea's Enhanced Nuclear and Missile Capabilities" written by Narushige Michishita, Vice President, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
- October 2021, "The Biden Administration's North Korea Policy: Its Low Priority and Looming Crises" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation.
- October 2021, "The Evolution of the US-ROK Alliance: Tasks in the Biden Era" written by Yasuyo Sakata, Professor, Kanda University of International Studies.
- September 2021, "The Development of Regional Security Architecture: From Asia-Pacific to Indo-Pacific" written by Ken Jimbo, Professor, Keio University.
- September 2021, "The Strategic Development of Japanese Security Cooperation under Superpower Competition and the Development of the FOIP and its Operationalization" written by Nobushige Takamizawa, Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Public Policy, The University of Tokyo.
- August 2021, "Security Perceptions of Central Asian Countries--- From the Perspective of China Studies ---" written by Shin Kawashima, Professor, the University of Tokyo.
- August 2021, "Security in the Indian Ocean Region---Implication of the Galwan Incident for QUAD in the Indo-Pacific" written by Dr. Satoru Nagao, Fellow (Non-Resident), Hudson Institute.
- August 2021, "Easternization and Security in Asia" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation.
- July 2021, "The Ideas of "Autonomy" and "Self-Reliance" in Contemporary India's Foreign Strategy" written by Kazutoshi TAMARI, Associate Professor,Chukyo University.
- July 2021, "Thailand's Security Policies and Threat Perceptions" written by Saya Kiba, Associate Professor, Komatsu University, Faculty of Intercultural Communication.
- July 2021, "Myanmar's Security Perceptions and the February 1 Coup d'Etat" written by Yoshihiro Nakanishi, Associate Professor, Kyoto University.
- July 2021, "Australia's Security Perceptions and the "Asia Threat"" written byTomohiko Satake, Senior Fellow, Defense Policy Division, Policy Studies Department, NIDS .
- June 2021, "The Indo-Pacific Regional Architecture: Its Future--- Multipolar Order Beyond US-China Relations ---" by Tsutomu Kikuchi, Professor, Aoyama Gakuin University
- June 2021, "The Quad Plus in the Security of Asia: Its Significance and Outlook" by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- June 2021, "Indonesian Views and Perceptions on National Security" by Nobuhiro Aizawa, Associate Professor, The Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies, Kyushu University
- June 2021, "Normalized Tensions in the Cross-Strait Relations--- Structural Changes in Taiwanese Society and the Xi Jinping Administration's Strategic Shift ---" by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Professor, The University of Tokyo
- June 2021, "China's Maritime Strategy and Responses of the United States and Japan" by Yoji Koda, Former Commander in Chief, Self Defense Fleet
- June 2021, "The South China Issues from the Perspective of the International Law Order",by Shigeki Sakamoto, Emeritus Professor, Kobe University
- May 2021, "Indonesian Views and Perceptions on National Security" by Nobuhiro Aizawa, Associate Professor, Kyushu University
- May, 2021, "The Philippine Foreign and Security Policy Perspective" written by Yusuke Takagi Associate Professor,National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
- May, 2021, "Vietnam's Security: Challenges and Responses" written by Tomotaka Shoji Head, Asia and Africa Division, Regional Studies Department, National Institute for Defense Studies
- March, 2021, "Can the Biden Administration Restore America as a Global Leader?" written by Matake Kamiya, Professor, the National Defense Academy of Japan.
- March, 2021, "The Biden Administration and Japan's Security Strategy" written by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
- February,2021, "US Foreign and Security Policy Direction Viewed from the Biden Administration's Lineup" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- February,2021, "Trade Policies of the Biden Administration" written by Takaaki Asano, Senior Analyst, Sumitomo Corporation Global Research Co. Ltd.
- February,2021, "The Biden Administration's Policy toward Russia" written by Taisuke Abiru, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January,2021, "Will US Policy Toward China Change?" lectured by Ryo Sahashi, Associate Professor, the University of Tokyo
- January,2021, "How will China View the Biden Administration?" written by Bonji Ohara, Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January,2021, "An Assessment of the 2020 US Presidential Election－American Democracy Now－" lectured by Fumiaki Kubo, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- January,2021, "Two Trumpian Mysteries－Why did Trump win over 70 million votes? Why is his outrageous behavior unchecked?－" lectured by Kazuhiro Maeshima, Professor, Sophia University
- September, 2020, "The Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic and Internationa Relationsl" by Matake Kamiya, Professor, National Defense Academy of Japan
- September, 2020, "The Policy Agenda for the Xi Jinping Administration- COVID-19 Countermeasures and China's International Relations -" by Shin Kawashima, Professor, The University of Tokyo
- "Control in the United States and International Relations" by Koji Murata, Professor, Doshisha University
- September, 2020, "The EU's Response to COVID-19 and International Relations" by Yuichi Hosoya, Professor, Keio University
- August, 2020, "The Corona Crisis Seen from a Macroeconomic Perspective" written by Motoshige Itoh, Professor Emeritus, The University of Tokyo
- August, 2020, "The Coronavirus Pandemic and Japan's Infectious Disease Control" written by Takashi Mihara, Senior Research Fellow, NLI Research Institute
- August, 2020, "Infectious Disease Crisis Control in Japan- Recommendations on an Exit Strategy -" written by Kazumasa Oguro, Professor, Hosei University
- August, 2020, "Security against Infectious Disease Threats --- Policy Responses Abroad" written by Takashi Sekiyama, Associate Professor, Kyoto University
- June 2020,"Transformation of the International Order in the Middle East--- Varying Degrees of "Stateness" and Three Directions of the New Order" written by Satoshi Ikeuchi, Professor, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo
- June 2020,"Destabilization in the Middle East and its Impacts on Japan's Energy Security" written by Amane Kobayashi, Research Fellow, The Institute of Energy Economics
- May 2020: Urgent Recommendations "Toward a V-shaped Recovery after the Novel Coronavirus Pandemic "Coronavirus Testing for All" --- the First Step of the Next Phase"
- May 2020: "US Diplomacy toward Iran: Economic Sanctions as a Diplomatic Tool" Hiroki Sugita Columnist, Kyodo News
- "Russian Factors in the Middle East" Taisuke Abiru Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- "The SDF Dispatches to the Middle East --- History and Significance" Ippeita Nishida Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- March 2020, "Space and Security" Kazuto Suzuki Professor, Hokkaido University
- March 2020, "The US Security Space Policy --- With a Focus on the Establishment of Two Space Forces" Yasuhito Fukushima Chief Researcher, The National Institute for Defense Studies
- March 2020, "China's Recent Activities in Space and Cyberspace" Bonji Ohara Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- March 2020, "Environmental Security and Japan" Takashi Sekiyama Associate Professor, Kyoto University
- March 2020, "Changes in Global Environment and Security --- US Security Strategy" Hideshi Tokuchi Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS)
- February 2020, "Cyberspace Security" Motohiro Tsuchiya Professor, Keio University
- February 2020, "Japan's Space and Cyberspace Policy" Yukinari Hirose Former President of the National Institute for Defense Studies
- December 2019, "The US-China Confrontation --- Where Will Hegemony Reside Next?" Akio Takahara Professor, the University of Tokyo
- December 2019, "Challenges Facing the Chinese Economy" Osamu Tanaka Chief Senior Researcher, Institute of Developing Economies, JETRO
- December 2019, "US Strategic Perception on China: Implications for US Allied Partners" Tsuneo Watanabe Senior Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- November 2019, "The Xi Jinping Administration's View of the International Order– China's emphasis on United Nations diplomacy and liberal economic policies−" Shin Kawashima, Professor, the University of Tokyo
- November 2019, "The Future of China's Security Strategy" Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- November 2019, "China --- Its Confidence and Anxiety" Bonji Ohara, Senior Research Fellow, Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- August 2019: Several Perspectives on the Korean Peninsula Issue--- The Deteriorating Japan-South Korea Relationship and the Uncertain Denuclearization of North Korea --- By Masahiro Akiyama Chairman, the SSDP
- July 2019, "An Outlook on the Denuclearization of North Korea--- What is the Stance of North Korea?---", Junya Nishino, Professor, Keio University
- July 2019, "An Outlook on the Denuclearization of North Korea --- How will the US move?", Narushige Michishita, Vice President, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- July 2019, "Discussion on Denuclearization of North Korea", SSDP Discussion Meeting on May 8, 2019
- May 2019: "Current Status and Prospects of South Korea and Japan's Frictions over History: How to address the Judicial Problems", Masao Okonogi, Professor Emeritus, Keio University
- May 2019: "South Korea and Japan's Frictions over History" (Comments), Junya Nishino, Professor, Keio University
- May 2019: Japan and South Korea Relationships (Question & Answer)
- March 2019: "The Present State and Prospects of the Indian Economy and Economic Policies" written by Koji Kobayashi, Senior Economist Mizuho Research Institute Ltd.
- March 2019: "The "Modi diplomacy" in the History of Indian diplomacy--- Departure from or maintenance of the traditional diplomacy? ---" written by Toru Ito, The National Defense Academy of Japan
- February 2019: Dynamics of Indian Politics and the 2019 General Elections, written by Chiharu Takenaka, Professor of Rikkyo University
- February 2019: "Cooperative Strategy" to Realize "Competitive Strategy"--- The composite structure of Japan's "Free and Open Indo-Pacific" strategy (vision) ---, written by Matake Kamiya, Professor at The National Defense Academy of Japan
- January 2019:, A paper, "How will the US midterm elections results affect the Trump administration's foreign policy for 2019?" written by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, the Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January 2019:, A paper, "The Present and Future of the International Trade Order" , written by Akihiko Tamura, Professor, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- December 2018: The US-China Competition and Japan, written by Ryo Sahashi, Professor at Kanagawa University
- December 2018: An Outlook for the US-China Trade War―What makes the two economically interdependent superpowers confront each other?―, written by Takashi Sekiyama, Associate professor at Toyo University
- September 2018: Proposal, "The Denuclearization of North Korea and the Restoration of Peace in the Korean Peninsula― Correct Perceptions and Eight Proposals on Japan's North Korea Diplomacy－" edited by the Society of Security and Diplomatic Policy Studies
- September 2018: "The Taiwan Policy of the Xi Jinping Administration in its Second Term: An Outlook on Cross-Strait Relations in the New Era" written by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Professor of the Tokyo University
- July 2018: "The EU States and Russia on North Korea Issues- Expansion of Influence through Diplomacy: Attempts and Limitations -" lectured by Yuichi Hosoya, Professor of Keio University
- "An Assessment of the US-North Korea Summit and an Outlook for the Future of the Korean Peninsula" lectured by Junya Nishino, Professor of Keio University
- "Korean Peninsula Issue and Japan's Future Security Policy" written by Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow of National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
- July 2018: "US North Korea policy affected by personnel changes in the Trump administration" lectured by Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation.
- "China-North Korea relationship under Xi Jinping" lectured by Shin Kawashima, Professor of the Tokyo University.
- "North Korean Denuclearization and Russia" lectured by Nobuo Shimotomai, Professor of the Hosei University.
- March 2018: "The Network Hegemony Theory for a Security Architecture in The Asia Pacific Region" lectured by Masahiro Akiyama, Chairman, the Society of Security and Diplomatic Policy Studies
- January 2018: "A Destabilized Middle East" lectured by Koichiro Tanaka, Professor, Keio University
- December 2017: "Problems in Sino-Japanese Relations, 1992-2042" lectured by Ezra F. Vogel, Professor of the Social Sciences Emeritus at Harvard University
- November 2017: "The Future of the Asia-Pacific Region" written by Yoriko Kawaguchi, Fellow, the Meiji Institute for Global Affairs, Former Minister Foreign Affairs
- October 2017: "A New Trend in India's Foreign Policy and Japan" Written by HIROSE,Takako, Professor, Senshu University
- August 2017: "The Shocks that shook the Transatlantic World and their Implication for Japan's Foreign Policy" written by HOSOYA, Yuichi, Professor, Keio University
- August 2017: "Does Economic Interdependence not Encourage Collaboration? ―Thinking Japan-China Relations from an Economic Perspective―" written by Takashi SEKIYAMA, Ph.D., Toyo University
- July 2017: Proposal article "The Trump Administration's Impact on the Cross-Strait Relations" written by Yasuhiro Matsuda, Ph.D.
- June 2017: Proposal article "The outlook for the relationship between two great powers and implications for Japanese diplomacy" written by Professor Shin Kawashima
- May 2017: (Emergency Proposal) Facing the Inconvenient Truth: Re-examining Policy for Peace and Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula (Chief author, Masao Okonogi)
- March 2017: "Economic Influences of the Trump Administration" written by Professor Motoshige Ito
- February, 2017: Proposal article "Trump's Foreign and Security Policy - Unpredictable President, Realistic Secretaries - " written by Mr. Tsuneo Watanabe is posted on the website of SSDP.
- December, 2016: Proposal article "Reconsidering North Korea Policy: How to Deal with a Nuclear Armed Divided States" written by Professor Masao Okonogi is posted on the website of SSDP.
- March 2021, Japan-ROK Parliamentary Dialogue -Japan-ROK Cooperation in the Era of US-China Competition- held on March 11, 2021
- December 2020: The report of the Japan-ROK Future Dialogue held on November 21 to discuss "Japan-ROK Cooperation in the Post-Covid-19 Era
- October 2020: "Responses to COVID-19 and Agendas for the Post-COVID-19 Era", A Brief Overview of the Japan-Korea Experts Dialogue held on July 29,30, 2020
- October 2020: "The China-Taiwan Confrontation over Corona Response and Taiwan's Security" written by Makoto Ogata, Former Chief of the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association in Taipei
- May 2020: "Rivalries in the Middle East in New Security Dynamics", Written by Sayed Ghoneim, Major General (retired) of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Chairman, Institute for Global Security & Defence Affairs
- March 2020: The Japan-South Korea Relationship in a Cul-de-Sac--- Where is an Exit ? Masao Okonogi Professor Emeritus, Keio Universit
- December 2019: The Hong Kong Upheaval and the Future of Cross-Straits Relations－The 2019 Japan-Taiwan Strategic Dialogue Report OGATA, Makoto Former Chief of the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association in Taipei
- August 2019: Report; 2019 FUTURE CONSENSUS DIALOGUE --Sustainable Prosperity and Future of Korea-U.S.-Japan Cooperation-- By Future Consensus Institute (Yeosijae)
- June 2019: Report on India – Japan Security Dialogue 2019 by Ms. Vindu Mai Chotani, Ph.D Student, The University of Tokyo
June 2019: Four papers on Japan-India Cooperation submitted to India-Japan Security Dialogue 2019
Japan's Rationale for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision
Tsuneo Watanabe, Senior Fellow, The Sasakawa Peace Foundation
The Significance and Possibilities of India-Japan Cooperation in the Concept of the Indo-Pacific
Toru ITO Associate Professor, National Defense Academy of Japan
Japan-India Defense Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific Context - Operationalizing the Security Aspect of the Indo-Pacific Vision –
Hideshi Tokuchi, Senior Fellow, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS)
India-US-Japan Defense Cooperation: What's next?
Dr. Satoru Nagao, Hudson Institute
- Japan's Rationale for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific Vision
- November 2018: "The Present State of the Japanese Economy and Policy Issues" lectured by Motoshige Itoh, Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo.
- November 2018: "Expanding Social Security Expenses and Fiscal Reforms" lectured by Kazumasa Oguro, Professor at Hosei University.
- September 2018: "Taiwan Identity and Cross-Strait Relations and Trump's Taiwan Policy and the Future of Taiwan-US Relations-Discussion at The Second Japan-Taiwan Strategic Dialogue (June 21, 2018, Taipei)-" written by OGATA, Makoto
- September 2018: "Japan-Taiwan Dialogue 2018 Minutes", 21st June 2018, Taipei, Taiwan.
- July 2018: Report on The Second Japan – Philippines Strategic Dialogue prepared by Ms. Vindu Mai Chotani, Ph.D. Student, Graduate School of Public Policy, Tokyo University.
- May 2018: "Civilian Control "at Crisis"? – Perhaps Not, for the Case of the Field Sit-reps from SDF's South Sudan Mission" reported by Ippeita Nishida, Research Fellow, the Sasakawa Peace Foundation
- January 2018: "Fukushima, Genki？Project－Young Taiwanese volunteers introduce the facts on Fukushima's revival through documentary films－" reported by OGATA, Makoto, Former Chief of the Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association in Taipei
- December 2017: "Commemorating a Quarter Century of Dispatches of the JSDF's PKO Units: Challenges and Possibilities in the Post South Sudan" written by Takayuki Shoji, Lecturer, Nihon University
- November 2017: "19th CCP National Congress" written by Mr. Bonji Ohara, Senior Research Fellow, the Sasakawa Peace Fondation
- October 2017: "What is Japan's Role in the Indo-China border conflict?" written by Dr. NGAO,Satoru, Research Fellow, Institute for Future Engineering
- July 2017: "Overview of the Current Situation in Taiwan-" the Naturally Independent Generation" will affect the Taiwan"s politics-" written by Makoto Ogata MGE.(Ret.)
- June 2017: "Japan-U.S. Economic Dialogue" written by Mr.Takaaki Asano
- March 2017: "The Japan-Philippines Strategic Dialogue" written by Mr. Hideshi Tokuchi
- February, 2017: Current topic "The Importance of Japan's Security Role Under Trump" written by Dr. Satoru Nagao is posted on the SSDP website.
- December, 2016: Current topic "Widening Security Task: Will SDF do the Job?" written by Mr. Ippeita Nishida is posted on the SSDP website.
- December 2021, Research Jounal "Security Studies (vol 3 no 4)"-Korean Peninsula Situation- was published.
- September 2021, A research journal "Security Studies vol03 no03" -Asia's Security II- (English edition)
- June 2021, A research journal "Security Studies vol03 no02" -Asia's Security I- (English edition)
- March 2021: Research journal "Security Studies (vol3 no1) "- US Foreign Policy in the Biden Administration / The 2020 US Presidential Election and American Democracy -(English edition)
- December 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no4) "- Normalize Japan-South Korea Relations trough Dialogues -(English edition)
- September 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no3) "-The Novel Coronavirus and Security-(English edition)
- July 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no2) - Middle East Situation and Japan's Security - " (English edition) was published
- May 2020: A research journal "Security Studies (vol2 no1) - Cyber, Space, Environment and Security - " March 2020 (English edition)
- February 2020, "A research journal "Security Studies (vol1 no4) " (English edition)"
- September 2019: A research journal "Security Studies (vol1 no3) " (English edition)
- August 2019: Korea-Japan Joint Seminar: FUTURE CONSENSUS DIALOGUE
- April 2019: "Security Studies (vol1 no2) April 2019"
- March 2019: A research journal "Security Studies vol1 no01" just published
- February 2019: The Denuclearization of North Korea and the Takeshima Issue
- December 2018: Former Vice Defense Minister Masahiro Akiyama's Memoirs (An Ad)
- November 2018: Participation in the Future Consensus Forum held in Beijing
- September 2018: "2018 Indo-Pacific Security Dialogue" reported by Masahiro Akiyama
- 2017 December: "The Butterfly Project-A possibility of showing a solution to the North Korea problem-"
- October 2017: Campaign on the problems with North Korea
- August 2017: A New Containment Policy Strategy
- June 2017: Korean peninsla
- March 2017: President Duterte
- February, 2017: Kazakhstan
- November, 2016: Participated in Astana Club 2016 held in Kazakhstan on November 14- 16, 2016.